Difference between Inductor and Capacitor, capacitor and inductor difference

In this article we will know about the difference between inductor and capacitor. We know about the Capacitor and inductor main difference.

difference between inductor and capacitor,main difference between capacitor and inductor


Difference between Inductor and Capacitor

                   Inductor

               Capacitor

1. Inductor stores energy in form of magnetic field .
Capacitor stores energy in form of electric field which is main difference between inductor and capacitor.
2.  Inductor is a coil part which stores electrical energy in form of magnetic field.
Capacitor is a device which stores electrical energy in form of electric field.
3. Inductor is a simply coil which stores energy in magnetic field.
Capacitor is made of two conductor which is separated by dielectric.
4. When an inductor is connected to an electric circuit, a current flows through the coils in the conductor
When a capacitor is connected to an electric circuit it start to  store electrical energy.
5. Inductor stores energy is
E = ½ C,
C is capacitance, V is  voltage
Capacitor stores energy is
E = ½ L
L is inductor , I is current of coil
The inductor is an electrical component used to oppose changes in current in the electrical and electronic circuits
The capacitor is an electrical component used to oppose change in current in the electrical and electronics.
7. these are passive element
These are also passive element
8. the inductor storing magnetic flux.
The capacitor is storing charge. it is main difference between inductor and capacitor
9. A component that follows that I = Cx dV/dt.
A component that follows that V = Lx dI/dt.
10. A capacitor will hold charge and discharge current at a set rate.
In case of inductor will induct (create) electricity through magnetic fields caused by running current through a cable with a conductive coil wrapped around it.

Hence these are basic difference between inductor and capacitor. These are some difference between capacitor and inductor.


difference between inductor and capacitor,main difference between capacitor and inductor

For knowing more about the difference between inductor and capacitor you must watch this video.

Synchronous condenser Working and application

In this article we will know about synchronous condenser. We know about the synchronous condenser working and application.

Synchronous condenser working 

Synchronous motors load the power line with a leading power factor. This is often useful in cancelling out the more commonly encountered lagging power factor caused by induction motors and other inductive loads. Originally, large industrial synchronous motors came into wide use because of this ability to correct the lagging power factor of induction motors.
synchronous condenser working and application , application of synchronous condenser

This leading power factor can be exaggerated by removing the mechanical load and over exciting the field of the synchronous motor. Such a device is known as a synchronous condenser. Furthermore, the leading power factor can be adjusted by varying the field excitation. This makes it possible to nearly cancel an arbitrary lagging power factor to unity by paralleling the lagging load with a synchronous motor. A synchronous condenser is operated in a borderline condition between a motor and a generator with no mechanical load to fulfill this function. It can compensate either a leading or lagging power factor, by absorbing or supplying reactive power to the line. This enhance power line voltage regulation .since a synchronous condenser does not supply a torque, the output shaft may be distend with and the unit easily enclosed in a gas tight shell. The synchronous condenser may then be filled with hydrogen to aid cooling and reduce wind age losses. Since a synchronous condenser does not supply torque, the output shaft may be dispensed with the unit easily enclosed in a gas tight shell. The synchronous condenser may then be filled with hydrogen to aid cooling and reduce wind age losses. Since the density of hydrogen is 7% of that of air, the wind age loss for hydrogen filled unit is 7% of that encountered in air. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity of hydrogen is ten times that of air. This, heat removal is ten times more efficient. As a result a hydrogen filled synchronous condenser can be driven Harper than an air cooled unit, or it may be physically smaller for given capacity. There is no explosion hazard as long as the hydrogen concentration is maintained above 70% , typically above 91% . the efficiency of long power transmission lines may be increased by placing synchronous condenser along the line to compensate lagging currents caused by line inductance. More real power may be transmitted through a fixed size line if the power factor is brought closer to unity by synchronous condensers absorbing reactive power. The ability of synchronous condensers to absorbs or produce reactive power on a transient basis stables the power grid against short circuit and other transient fault conditions. Transient sags and dips of milliseconds duration are stabilized. This supplements longer response times of quick acting voltage regulation and excitation
of generating equipment. The synchronous condenser aids voltage regulation by drawing leading current when the line voltage sags, which increases generator excitation there by resorting line voltage. a capacitor bank does not have this ability.
synchronous condenser working and application , application of synchronous condenser
The capacity of a synchronous condenser can be increased by replacing the copper wound iron field rotor with iron less motor of high temperature superconducting wire, which must be cooled to the liquid nitrogen boiling point of 77 degree kelvin (-196 degree Celsius). The superconducting wire carries 160 times the current of comparable copper wire, while producing a flux density of 3 tussles or higher. An iron core would saturate at 2 tussles in the rotor air gap.  

Synchronous Condenser Application 

  1. ·         Power factor improvement
  2. ·         Use for leading power factor
  3. ·         Use for lagging power factor
  4. ·         Use for unity power factor
  5. ·         For synchronous speed
  6. ·         Less than synchronous speed
  7. ·         More than synchronous speed

Hence these are synchronous condenser and their working , application if you will find any incorrect above article you must comment below in comment box.

Types of single phase induction motor

In this article we will know about the types of single phase induction motor. We will know about the universal induction motor.

Types of single phase induction motor

Single phase induction motor construction is similar to poly phase induction motor except that
types of single phase induction motor, single phase induction motor types and application
1. Its stator is provided with a single phase winding
2. A centrifugal switch is used to cut out a winding for starting purpose.
It has distributed stator winding and squirrel cage rotor.
When fed from a single phase supply its stator winding produce a flux which is only alternating.
Types of single phase induction motor

1. Split phase induction motor

These stator of split phase induction motor is provided with an auxiliary winding S in adding to the main or moving winding M. the starting winding is at 90 degree from main winding M and operate only during the brief period when motor starts up. The S winding has high resistance and M winding has low resistance. So the current flowing through winding has reasonable phase difference. ( 25 to 30 degree).it is main types of single phase induction motor.

2. Capacitor start induction motor

In this motor winding has as many turns as M winding and a capacitor C is connected in series with the starting winding. The value of capacitor is so chosen that current in stator winding leads current in main winding by about 80 degree. These types of single phase induction motor are mainly used in domestic application.
types of single phase induction motor, single phase induction motor types and application
These are of following types:
1. Single voltage externally reversible type
2. Single voltage nonreversible type
3. Single voltage reversible with thermostat type
4. Two voltage nonreversible type
5. Two voltage reversible type
6. Single voltage instantly reversible type
7. Single voltage three lead reversible type
8. Two speed type single phase induction motor

3. Capacitor starts and run induction motor

This motor is similar to capacitor start motor except that the starting winding and capacitors are connected in the circuit all times. They are of two types:
·         Single value capacitor runs motor:
These motor start and run with one value of capacitance in the circuit.
·         Two value capacitor run motor:
This motor start with high value of capacitance but run with a low value of capacitance are known as two value motor.

4. Shaded pole motor

types of single phase induction motor, single phase induction motor types and application

These motor has salient poles on the stator excited by single phase supply and a squirrel cage rotor. A portion of each pole is surrounded by a short circuited turn of copper strip called shading coil.

Advantage

  • ·         Simple in construction
  • ·         Reliable and cheap

Disadvantage of shaded pole induction motor


  • ·         Low starting torque
  • ·         Very little overload capacity
  • Low efficiency
  • ·         Uses: small toys, hair dryers, ventilators.

Universal induction motor

This motor operated either a direct or single phase A.C supply at approx... Same speed and output. It has starting torque and variable speed characteristics. It runs at high speed on no load.

They are of two types:
  • ·         Concentrated pole, non-compensated type
  • ·         Distributed field compensated type

Application

  • ·         Vacuum cleaner
  • ·         Drink and food mixer
  • ·         Drills
  • ·         Domestic sewing machine

Method of speed control of universal motor

  • ·         Resistance method
  • ·         Tapping field method
  • ·         Centrifugal mechanism

Unexcited single phase synchronous motor:

These motor operate from a single phase AC supply and runs at constant speed. These motor are also self-starting and no dc excision is necessary for their rotors. They are of two types
  • ·         Reluctance type
  • ·         Hysteresis motor
Hence these are main types of single phase induction motor if you will find any incorrect above you must comment below in comment box.


For knowing more about the types of single phase induction motor.

Types Of Stepper Motor,Application of stepper motor

In this article we will know about the types of stepper motor and also know about the application of stepper motor and their advantage.

Stepper Motor

A stepper motor is a brush less dc motor whose motor rotates in discrete angular increments when its stater winding are energized in a programmed manner. In other words, a stepper motor is a digital actuator whose input is in the form of programmed energization of the stater winding and whose output is in the form of discrete angular rotation. There are a number of different type of motors available and each has its own advantages and disadvantage.
Stepper motor may be divided into the following groups as far as their construction is concerned.

Types Of Stepper Motor

1. Variable reluctance type stepper motor
2. Permanent magnet type stepper motor
3. permanent magnet hybrid type stepper motor

1. Variable reluctance (VR) stepper motor

In this types of stepper motor there is no permanent magnet either on the stater or on the rotor. The stater and rotor are of salient pole type and mode of soft iron stamping.

Types of stepper motor, application of stepper motor , advantage of stepper motor
The stater has a number of wound poles but the rotor has no winding and is cylindrical. The number of poles on the stater is an even multiple of the number of phases for which the stater winding are wound. The number of phases on the stater must be at least three for bidirectional control of the stepper motor.

Application of (VR) stepper motor

Variable reluctance stepper motors are quite inexpensive and suitable for light duties such as those in computer and industrial instrument systems.

2. Permanent magnet (Bipolar) stepper motor

A two-phase bipolar stepper motor has two coils A and B which are wound around the upper and lower halves of stater. the stater surrounds a rotor that contains specifically aligned permanent magnets. The no. of steps per revolution is determined by the no. of pole pairs on the rotor and stater.

Types of stepper motor, application of stepper motor , advantage of stepper motor

The maximum torque with which the excited motor can be loaded without causing a continuous rotation is termed the stepper motor holding torque.

Application PM types of stepper motor

This motor is used as a paper feed motor of a printer or head drive motor of a floppy disk drive.

3. Hybrid types of stepper motor

The hybrid types of stepper motor uses the principle of permanent magnet and variable reluctance stepper motors. In the hybrid motors,the rotor flux is produced by the permanent magnet and is directed by the rotor teeth to the appropriate parts of the air gap. The permanent magnet is placed in the middle of the rotor. It is magnetized in the axial direction. Each pole of the magnet is surrounded with soft toothed lamination.

Types of stepper motor, application of stepper motor , advantage of stepper motor

Advantage of Hybrid stepper motor

The main advantages are hybrid types of stepper motor
1. very small step angles up to 1.8 degree
2. Higher torque per unit volume which is more than in case of variable reluctance motor.
3. Due to permanent magnet, the motor has some definite torque which is absent is( VR) motor.

Hence these are types of stepper motor if you will find any incorrect in above article you must comment below in comment box.


If you want to know more about the types of stepper motor you can also watch  this video.

Principle Of Energy Conservation

In this article we will learn about the principle of energy conversion and also studied about the cost reducing technique of energy.

Principle Of Energy Conservation

Two principles of energy conservation planning are maximum energy efficiency and maximum cost effective-ess in energy use.

Maximum Energy Efficiency

A device system or process is working at maximum energy efficiency when maximum work is done for a given magnitude of energy input. Only a part of the energy input is converted into useful work. The remainder is lost is energy conversion and transfer process and energy discharge.
Work = Energy input – input – energy loss is conversion transfer – energy discharge.
Energy input can be in the form of fossil fuels or latent heat in vapor and gaseous streams or electrical energy. It is heat in vapor and gaseous streams or electrical energy. It is necessary to measure input to determine efficiency.
Work is done by a force causing a motion. Its magnitude is equal to the product of force and displacement e.g., in a turbine or motor the work is measured by the force and number of rotations of the turbine.
principle of energy conversion , energy cost reducing techniqe
Energy loss is conversion and transfer is a necessary part of energy utilization. No process is 100% efficient. The energy losses can be electrical, mechanical, heat, chemical etc. this energy loss is finally dissipated to the surroundings in the form of heat .this heat is transferred to the surrounding by conduction, convection and radiation.
It is evident that system efficiency would improve if energy loss in conversion and transfer and energy discharge is minimized. All energy conversion techniques aim at reducing these losses.

Maximum cost effectiveness in energy use

Implementation of energy conservation entails additional investment. This investment increases as more and more energy conservation measures are adopted. Because of implementation of these measures the fuel costs decrease as extent of conservation in increased. The total cost per unit output is the per unit output and fuel costs per unit output as shown. Evidently maximum cost effectiveness in energy use is obtained when total costs are the least. Around point M (provided energy prices are constant). For better understand about principle of energy conversion we need to also know about the energy cost reduction which is given below.

Energy cost reduction

Off-peak energy utilization

A solution to improving plant capacity factor is to encourage, through lower rates, the use of off-peak energy.
The benefits derived from off-peak energy sales are:
1. Improved capacity factors and hence lower capacity cost and better utilization of investment.
2. Reduced need for peaking units resulting in lower plant capacity and lower production and maintenance costs of fossil peaking units.

Co-generation

Co-generation means sequential conversion of energy contained in fuel into two or more usable forms. There can be two-types of co-generation system.
a. implant power generation system
b. Reject heat utilization system

Co-generation technologies

The different co-generation system is
a. steam turbine system
b. Gas turbine system
c. combined cycles Co-generation system
d. diesel engine system

Energy Conversion

Energy conservation means using energy more efficiency and reducing wastage of energy. Energy has an important role in our day to day life. Energy conservation requires new investments in more efficient equipment to replace old inefficient ones. By energy conservation we can get more job opportunities, lower cost, cheaper and better products.

Hence it is the principle of energy conversion if you will find any incorrect above please comment below in comment box.



Types Of Hydro Turbines, hydro turbines type and working


In this article we will learn about the main types of hydro turbines. We will discuss about mainly three types of turbines which description is given below.

Types of hydro turbines

There are basically three types of hydro turbines which are as follows

1. Peloton turbine

Peloton turbine works under large head and low quantity of water. The potential energy of water in the pen stock is converted into kinetic energy in a jet of water issuing from a nozzle. The pressure inside is atmospheric pressure. The water jet impinges on buckets fixed on the periphery of rotor and causes the motion of the rotor. After performing work. Water discharges into the tail race.
Each bucket is divided into two hemispherical cups with a ridge in the center. The ridge divides the jet into two symmetrical parts. The axial thrust produced in the two parts of the buckets cancel out each other. The rate of water flow can be controlled by the movement of spear.
types of hydro turbines, working of peloton turbine, hydro turbine types
Most of the peloton turbines have one jet through machines with two or four jets are also used. The rotor or runner is made of cast steel. Bucket is made of cast iron, bronze or stainless steel. The bucket is bolted on to the runner but integral casting of buckets with runner is also possible. Peloton turbines have usually horizontal alignment. These are special types of hydro turbines.


2. Francis turbine

A reaction turbine develops power partly due to the velocity of water and partly due to the difference in pressure acting on the front and back of the runner buckets. A Francis turbine is a reaction turbine suitable for medium head and medium flows. They are built in large sizes and are generally of vertical type to effect economy in space. The alternator is mounted above the turbine and is thus free from flooding.
types of hydro turbines, working of peloton turbine, hydro turbine types

A modern francs turbine is an inward mixed flow reaction turbine. The water, under pressure, enters the runner from guide vanes radially and discharges out of the runner axially. The motion of water is controlled by movable inlet wicket gates, fixed around  the runner, through which the water passes on its way from the spiral casing to the runner, since the pressure at inlet is more than that at out let, the water flows in a closed circuit and the runner is always full of water. After doing work, water is discharged to the tail race through a closed tube known as draft tube which has a gradually enlarging section. The free end of the draft tub is submerged deep in tail race water. The draft tube enables the machine to be placed above the tail race without loss of head between the runner and the tail race. As in all reactions turbines, cavitation is a serious problem in a Francis turbine.it is also special types of turbines .
for knowing more about Francis turbine  you must watch this video.



3..  Kaplan propeller turbine

propeller turbine is reaction turbine suitable for low head and large quantity of water. It is suitable for heads beldo 30m. a Kaplan turbine is a propeller turbine with adjustable blades being that a Kaplan turbine operates at high efficiency even under part load conditions. Their specific speeds vary from 300 to 1000 or even higher.
All parts of Kaplan turbine such as spiral casing, guide mechanism and draft tube except runner are similar to those of a Francis turbine. A Kaplan runner has only three to six blades as compared to 16-24 for a Francis runner. The smaller number of blades causes a reduction in contact surface and hence in frictional resistance. Further.in Kaplan turbine eater strikes the blades axially.. It is high speed types of hydro turbines.

The speed of Kaplan turbines is more than that of Francis turbines and lies in the range of 400-1500 rpm, the high speed resulting in lower cost of runner and alternator and cheaper power house structure. A Kaplan turbine has a vertical configuration. A Kaplan runner is also capable of reverse operation as a pump and is ideally suitable for pumped storage scheme. The cavitation problem in Kaplan turbines is more serious than in Francis turbines. It is special types of hydro turbine which speed is higher than other types of hydro turbines



Hence it is the main types of turbines if you will find any incorrect in above article you must comment below in comment box.

Here also a video of kaplan turbine working and application.

Transistor audio power amplifier

In this article we will know about the transistor audio power amplifier. We will also know about the voltage and power amplifier.in this article we will try to know that how a amplification
work or working of amplifier.

Transistor audio power amplifier

Introduction
A practical amplifier always consists of a number of stages that amplify a weak signal until sufficient power is available to operate a loud speaker of their output device. The first few stages in this multistage amplifier have the function of only voltage amplification. However, the last stage is designed to provide maximum power. This final stage is known as power stage.
it is the circuit diagram of transistor audio power amplifier. which is shown below.

transistor audio power amplifier, difference between voltage and power amplifier, working of power amplifier
The term audio means the range of frequencies which our ears can hear. The range of human hearing extends from 20HZ to 20KHZ. Therefore, audio amplifiers amplify electrical signals that have a frequency range corresponding to the range of human hearing. The early stages build up the voltage level of the signal while the last stage builds up power to a level sufficient to operate the loudspeaker.

Transistor audio power amplifier

A transistor amplifier which raises the power level of the signal that has audio frequency range is known as transistor audio amplifier,
In general, the last stage of a multistage amplifier is the power stage. The power amplifier differs from all the previous stages in that here a concentrated effort is made to obtain maximum output power. A transistor that is suitable for power amplification is generally called a power transistor. It differs from other transistors in size; it is considerably larger to provide for handling the great amount of power.it is main working of transistor audio power amplifier.

Difference between voltage and power amplifier

The distinction between voltage and power amplifier is somewhat artificial since useful power (that is product off voltage and current) is always developed in the load resistance through which current flows. The difference between the two types is really one of degree; it is a question of how much voltage and how much power. A voltage amplifier is designed to achieve maximum voltages amplification. It is, however, not important to raise the power level. On the other hand a power amplifier designed to obtain maximum output power.

Hence it is the transistor audio power amplifier if you find any incorrect in above article please comment below in comment box.


Advantage of Three Phase System

In this article we will learn about the advantage of three phase system. We will also know about the advantage and disadvantage of three phase system.
advantage of three phase system, three phase system advantage

Advantage of Three Phase System

The advantages of three phase system over a single phase system are as follows

1. The amount of conductor material needed to transfer same amount of power is lesser for three systems.

2. Domestic power and industrial/commercial power can be provided from the same power.
3. Voltage regulation of three phase system is better.

4. As three phase induction motors are self-starting while single phase motors are self-starting while single phase motors are not, three phase system is certainly advantageous and versatile.

5. The torque produced by three phase motors is more.

6. For given size of frame, three phase generator provides more input.

In star connection

1. The line voltage is 120 degree apart from each other (phase voltage is also 120 degree apart from each other).

2. The line voltage is also 30 degree ahead of their respective phase voltages.

3.  The angle between the line currents and corresponding line voltage is (30 dgree + a) with current lagging by an angle a (for lagging loads).

4. Line voltage magnitude is root three times the phase voltage magnitude.

5. The current in line and phase are same.

In delta connection

1. The line current is 120 degree apart from each other as well as phase currents.

2. Line currents are 30 degree behind the respective phase currents.

3. The angle between the line current and corresponding line voltage is (30 degree +a) with the current lagging by an angle a.

4. Line voltage and phase voltage being same, the line current is root three times the phase current.

Hence it is the advantage of three phase system if you will find any incorrect above please comment below in comment box.

If you want to know more about the advantage of three phase system you must watch this video.


Difference between JFET and MOSFET

In this article we will know about the difference between JFET and MOSFET. In this article  we will learn about the main difference between MOSFET and JFET.

Difference between JFET and MOSFET


JFET (Junction Field Effect Transister)

 MOSFET ( Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor)


difference between JFET and MOSFET, what is difference between MOSFET and JFET

difference between JFET and MOSFET, what is difference between MOSFET and JFET
It is symbol diagram of MOSFET ( Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor.
which three terminal
1. Gate
2. Drain
3. Source
1. In JFET gate biasing is reverse biasing.
 In MOSFET is forward biasing or reverse biasing
The mode of operation of JFET is depletion mode
In case of MOSFET mode operation is both depletion mode and enhancement mode.
2. The input impedance of JFET is very high as compare to MOSFET.
The input impedance of MOSFET is low as compare to JFET.
3. The Drain resistance of JFET is higher than MOSFET. It is higher than MOSFET.
The Drain resistance of lower that JFET. It is main difference between F=JFET and MOSFET.
4. The manufacturing compatibility of JFET is less easy than MOSFET
It is easy to manufacture
5. The gate current leakage is Nano ampere
In the order of bico ampere
6. Compatibility to ic fabrication is suitable
Compatibility to IC fabrication is more suitable than JFET.
7. In JFET power classification is more.
In MOSFET power classification is less.
8. Its gate margin is 0.1 to 10 mA/V.
Its gate margin is 0.1 to 20 m/a/V.
9. JFET has not p-n junction which have high resistivity.
It is a voltage controlled field effect has a metal oxide gate electrode. Which is electrically insulated from a channel n-type or p-type by very thin layer of insulating material?
10. The JFET is normally ON device. it is most important difference between JFET and MOSFET
The MOSFET is normally off devices.

Hence it is difference between JFET and MOSFET. If you will find any incorrect above article please
comment below in comment box.

If you want to know more about the difference between JFET and MOSFET. You must watch this video.

Electrical Energy Sources

In this article we will know about the electrical energy source. We will discuss about the electrical energy sources.

Electrical Energy Sources

Energy sources
Independent voltage sources and independent current sources are the active elements. We have to consider now, these are also known as ideal voltage source and ideal current source respectively.

Ideal Voltage source

electrical energy sources, ideal voltage source , ideal current source
An ideal voltage source is one whose voltage is independent of other circuit quantities, the voltage being a function of time only. Specifically it is not a function of the magnitude or direction of the current passing through it. An ideal voltage source may be shown as in fig. shows the case when source voltage is a function of time while fig. show when the voltage is a constant (a direct voltage).
A voltage source is not necessarily a power source. The current through a voltage source is determined by other elements as well as by the voltage source, at the instants of time when the current direction is form –Ve to +ve through the voltage source the energy flows from the voltage sources. A practical voltage source differs from the idealized one defined above in the voltage changes with the current through the source. Any practical source can be approximated by some combination of an ideal voltage source and other circuit elements.

Ideal current source

An ideal current source is a current source whose current is independent of other circuit quantities and is a function of time only specifically it is not a function the voltage across its terminals. A current source may be shown as in fig.
A current source is not necessarily a power since the polarity of the voltage across it is determined by other element as well as by the current source.

Ideal Voltage source characteristic

electrical energy sources, ideal voltage source , ideal current source
Ideal voltage source delivers energy at specified voltage V which is independent of current delivers by source.

 Ideal current source characteristic

Ideal current source delivers energy at a specified current I which is independent of voltage delivers across the source.

Practical voltage, current sources and their transformation

electrical energy sources, ideal voltage source , ideal current source


In a similar manner, a practical current source falls short of the ideal and its output current falls with increase of load resistance (or impudence).  Therefore. Such a source may be approximated as an ideal current source with a shunt resistance (or impedance, to be more general). This shunt impedance then accounts for the fall of output current with increase of load resistance.
Practical voltage and current sources may be diagrammatically represented as in fig. represents practical voltage source while fig. represents a practical current source.

Hence these are electrical energy sources if you will find any incorrect above please comment below in comment box.

If you want to know more about the electrical energy sources you must watch this video.