Types Of Connectors

In this article we will learn about the types of connectors. We will know about how many types of connector which are used to connect two connector.

Types of Connectors

Types of connectors, connectors types,working of connectors , how many types of connector

Introduction of Connectors

For knowing types of connector we need to know introduction of connector.
A connector is an electromechanically device used for joining electrical circuits as an interface using a mechanical assembly.
There are  various types of connectors are following.

1. Male/Female type DB Connectors

A D-sub contains two or more parallel rows of pins or sockets usually surrounded by D-shaped metal shield that provides mechanical support, ensures correct orientation, and may screen against electromagnetic interference.

A. Male Connector

The part containing pin contacts is called the male connector or plug.

B. Female Connector

The part containing socket contacts is called the female connector or socket.

1. The sockets shield fits tightly inside the plugs shield.

2. panel mounted connectors usually have threaded nuts that accept screws on the cable and connector cover  that are used for locking  the connectors together and offering mechanical strain relief.

3. Occasionally the nuts may be found on a cable end connector if it is expected to connect to another cable end.

4. When screen cable are used, cable are used, the shield are connected to the overall screens of the cables. This creates an electrically continuous screen covering the whole cable and connector system.

2. Servo 0.1” Connector

In the electronics industry, connectors are most commonly referred to by the spacing between contacts. The most popular size, without a doubt, is the 0.1” connector. It is main types of connectors
Open up any computer and you will find tons of 0.1” connectors from IDE cables to USB and fire wire headers. That’s exactly the type of connector used by the RC industry for servo and anything else that plugs into you receiver. 0.1” connector applies to servo connectors and vice-versa.

3. RCA Connector

A RCA connector, sometimes called a phono connector or cinch connector, is a type of electrical connector commonly used to carry audio and video signals. The RCA connectors are also sometimes casually referred to as A/V (audio/ video) jacks. The name of RCA derives frame the Radio Corporation of America.

4. BNC connector

Types of connectors, connectors types,working of connectors , how many types of connector

The BNC (Bayonet Ne ill-councilman) connector is miniature quick connect/disconnect radio frequency connector used for coaxial cable. If features two bayonet lugs on the female connector, mating is fully achieved with a quarter turn of the coupling nut.it is also main types of connectors.

5. HDMI Connector (high definition multimedia interface)

HDMI is a compact audio/video interface for transferring uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from a HDMI compliant source device. Such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television or digital audio device.
There are some more types of connector which is given below.

6. Audio \ Video connector

Audio connector and video connectors are electrical connector (or optical connector) for carrying audio signal and video signal of either analog or digital format.

7. DIN Connector

A DIN connector is connector that was originally standardized by the detaches institute for norming (DIN).

8. XLR Connector

XLR connector plugs and sockets are used mostly in professional audio and video electronics cabling applications. XLR connectors are also known as cannon plugs. They are used for analog or digital balanced audio with a balanced line.

9. Mini-DIN connector

The mini- DIN connector is a family of multi-pin electrical connectors used in a variedty of applications. Mini DOM is similar to larger odder DIN connector.

10. RF Connector

A coaxial RF connector (radio frequency connector) is an electrical connector designed to work at radio frequencies in the multi megahertz range.

11. USB Connector

A universal serial bus (USB) connector is a connector between a computer and a peripheral device such as a printer, monitor, scanner mouse or keyboard. It is a part of the USB interface, which includes types of parts, cables and connectors.
Hence it is the types of connector if you will find any incorrect above please comment below in comment box.
Types of connectors, connectors types,working of connectors , how many types of connector

For knowing more about the types of connectors you must watch this video.

Electromagnetic induction

In this article we will learn about the electromagnetic induction, we will also know about the right hand rule, left hand rule, helix rule . 

Electromagnetic induction

Whenever a conductor cuts the magnetic lines of forces, then an EMF is induced in the conductor. This is called electromagnetic induction. Thus, electromagnetic induction. Thus, electromagnetic induction is the phenomenon of production of electric current (or EMF) in a coil, when the magnetic flux linked with the coil is changed.

Electromagnetic induction, faraday law of electromagnetic induction, right hand rule, left hand rule

This principle was given by Michael  Faraday and is used in DC generators.
The two law given the basic electromagnetic induction are discussed below.
Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic induction
Electromagnetic induction, faraday law of electromagnetic induction, right hand rule, left hand rule
With reference to electromagnetic induction, Michael Faraday has given two laws,
They are as follows.

First Law of electromagnetic induction

Whenever the value of magnetic flux passing through any conductor gets changed, then an EMF  is generated in the conductor and this EMF generated is retained until the value of flux is variable.

Second Law Of Electromagnetic induction

The induce EMF , in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of magnetic flux linkage with the circuit.

LenZ’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

This law gives the direction of induced emf/current. According to this law,
“ the direction of induced EMF or induced current in a circuit is such as to oppose the change in magnetic flux flux which produces it”.

Electromagnetism

Out of three effects ( that is heating, chemical and magnetic) of electric current, one is magnetic effect of electric current. In the year 1819, scientist named orested propounded that, if a magnetic needle is placed near a wire carrying current then the needle is affected by electric current or in other words, a current carrying conductor produces magnetic field.
In this way, the magnetic field produced by a current carrying conductor is called as electromagnetism.
The magnetic filed produced by different types of current carrying conductors are given below.

Magnetic filed of Current Carrying Straight Conductor

Electromagnetic induction, faraday law of electromagnetic induction, right hand rule, left hand rule
The magnetic field around a  current carrying straight  conductor is concentric magnetic lines around the conductor. The center of magnetic lines are produced along the complete length of the conductor.

The direction of electric lines of forces can be found by following two methods.

Right Hand Rule

Electromagnetic induction, faraday law of electromagnetic induction, right hand rule, left hand rule

According to this rule, hold the current carrying conductor in the right hand such  that the thumb pointing in the direction of current and parallel to the conductor, then curled fingers point in the direction of magnetic field or flux around it.

Cork Screw Rule

Imagine a right handed screw to be along the conductor carrying current with its axis parallel to the conductor and tip pointing in the direction of the current flow.
Then, the direction of magnetic filed is given by the direction in which the screw must be turned so as to advance in the direction of the current.

Magnetic Field of a current carrying Loop

Magnetic field in a current carrying conductor is also made of concentric spherical magnetic lines.
The difference is that, inside the loop, these electric lines are concentrated and outside the loop, they are at some distance from each other.

Magnetic Field of a Current carrying solenoid

For know better about the electromagnetic induction we need to know about the magnetic field in circuit or coil.

The magnetic field of a current carrying solenoid or a coil is similar to the magnetic field of  a bar magnet.
One end of solenoid works as a north pole and other end as south pole.
Electromagnetic induction, faraday law of electromagnetic induction, right hand rule, left hand rule
The poles of a solenoid can be pointed out by any of the following rules.

Helix Rule

According to this rule, if the solenoid is held in such a way that curled fingers represent the direction of current, then right hand thumb or outer stretched points towards North pole.

End Rule

If on observing, we find from one pole, the direction of solenoid current is clockwise then, that pole is south pole and if current direction is anti-clockwise then it is north pole.

Hence it is the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction if you will find any incorrect above please you must comment below in comment box


For knowing more about the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction you must watch this video.


Application of Multimeter


In this article we will learn about the application of multimeter. We will learn that where we can use of multimeter. we also studied about the precaution of multimeter.

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Application of Multimeter

1. Resistance measuring

2. Measuring of Direct current and voltage

3. Measuring the AC Voltage
These are some application of multimeter which detail given below.

1. Resistance measuring

It is main application of multimeter.  It is used for measuring resistance of circuit.
In resistance measuring, black testing lead is connected with common plug socket and red lead is connected with 10ohm plug socket. After connecting both leads, their point ends short circuited and pointer is adjusted to 0 with the help of zero adjusting knobs.

Now both the ends of unknown resistor are connected with the end points of connecting leads. The résistance of the unknown resistor will be shown on the meter screen. If pointer shows resistor greater than 10 ohm, then red lead is connected with 1mega ohm range plug socket. Repeat above given process to measure unknown resistance.

2. Measuring the Direct Current and Voltage

It is also most important application of multimeter .

When a Direct Current (DC) is passed through the coil of multimeter , the multimeter shows a deflection promotional to DC. For measuring DC current , the multimeter is connected in series with the circuit and to measure DC voltage, it is connected in parallel with the two ends across which the DC voltage is to be measured.
application of multimeter, multimeter application, precaution of multimeter during application

After making connection of multimeter in a circuit, the black lead is connected with negative terminal and red lead with the positive terminal of the battery. The pointer of the multimeter shows the value of DC voltage. In order to measure the DC current, first the function switch is adjusting to the DC current measurement.

Thereafter, the red and black leads of the multimeter are connected with the positive and negative terminal of the battery, respectively. The pointer of the multimeter showed the value of DC current.

3. Measuring of AC Voltage

It is main application of multimeter because its maximum use to measuring of AC voltage in practical life.
In order to measure the AC voltage, the root mean square (RMS) values of voltage is measured with proper setting of voltage. To measure the AC voltage. First the AC voltage is step down upto 6V by using step-down transformer and the multimeter is connected to the two ends of the secondary coil of step-down transformer.

By adjusting the sliding contact Z of rheostat in between X and Y ends, the multimeter readings for AC voltage drop across the resistor are noted.
These are application of multimeter

Advantage of multimeter

After studied the application of millimeter we need to know about the advantage of multimeter.
application of multimeter, multimeter application, precaution of multimeter during application

1. The accuracy is very high.

2. Input impudence is very high hence, there is no loading effect.

3. An unambiguous reading at greater viewing distances is obtained.


4. The output available is electrical which can be used for interfacing with external equipment.

5. Due to improvement in the integrated technology, the prices are going down hence, it became cheaper.

Disadvantage

The requirement of power supply electric noise and isolation problems are the limitations.

Precautions of multimeter  ( during application of multimeter)


1. Before the using the multimeter, the ends of the probes shold be cleaned to remove the insulation deposited on them.

2. Do not connect the multimeter with an AC circuit, as is cannot measure the AC quantity directly.

application of multimeter, multimeter application, precaution of multimeter during application
3. While measuring the current and voltage, set the selector switch at the highest range, then it is reduced to low as per the requirement.

4. If the value of the resistance of a resistor is to be measured, then the resistor should be dismantled from the circuit and power supply is disconnected from the multimeter. Then, the resistance value should be measured.

5. Do not use the multimeter for the measurement of current larger value than the range shown on the rotary selector.

6.  Before using the multimeter, ensure that pointer is set at zero position after touching both the probes together. If it is not so, then adjust the potentiometer to set the pointer ses at zero position. .  So these are precaution which we follow during used of multimeter or application of multimeter.

Hence it is the application of multimeter if you will find any incorrect above please you must comment below in comment box.

If you want to know more about the application of multimeter you must watch this video.


Introduction Of Light

In this article we will learn about the introduction of light. We know about what is basic introduction of light.

Introduction of light


It is an agent which produces in us the sensation of sight. It itself is invisible but makes the other objects visible. It may be defined as the radiant energy which produces the sensation of light.

Ray of Light

For better understand introduction of light we need to know about the ray of light.

It is a straight line path along which the transfer of light energy takes place.
Introduction of light, light introduction, reflection of light, light reflectiona

Pencil of light rays

It is a group of inclined rays of light diverging from a point source or covering to another point.

Beam Of light

As shown in the figure the group of parallel rays is called beam of light.

Divergent Rays

If rays of light are diverging from a point source so that, distance between  rays goes on increasing as they move forward, then the group is called divergent rays as shown in fig.

Convergent Rays

If rays of light are converting to a point so that, the distance between the rays goes on decreasing as they move forward, then the group is called convergent rays as shown in fig.

Parallel Rays

If successive light rays keep equal distance through, then they are parallel rays
In introduction of light these are different types of rays.

Image.

If pencil of diverging from a point O is caused by reflection (or refraction)  to coverage or to appear to diverge from some other point I, then I is called image of the object O.

Real Image

If reflected (or refracted) rays from first point appear to meet at the second point, then the second point is called real image of first point. Real image can be taken on the screen.

Virtual Image

If reflected (or refracted) rays from first point appear to meet at the second point, then it is called virtual image of first point. It cannot be taken on the screen.

Reflection of Light

In introduction of light these are also important point that is reflection of light which means that how to reelect light.
It is bending of light to the first medium from the surface of separation of the two media. The rays are sent back by this process. The phenomenon of reflection of light is shown in figer.
Thus, the process of sending back the light rays which fall on the surface of an object is called reflection of light.it is basic introduction of light.

Incident Ray

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The ray of light originating from the source and falling on the surface of mirror shwoing the incident ray.

Point of Incidence

It is the point at which the incident ray comes in contact with the mirror.  mid point is the incident point.

Reflected Ray

The ray of light which is sent back by the mirror is called reflected ray.

The normal is a line at right angles to the mirror surface at the point of incidence. NO is the normal.

Angle of Incidence

It is the angle made by the incident ray with the normal at the point of incidence.

Angle of Reflection

It is the angle made by the reflected ray with the normal at the point of incidence.

Regular Reflection

When a beam of parallel light rays falls on a shining but plane surface, the light rays are reflected back in the same order. It is regular reflection.

Irregular Reflection

When light beam falls on rough but uneven surface the light rays reflected back in many directions. This is known as irregular reflection. It gives scattered or diffused light.

Hence it is the introduction of light if you will find any incorrect above article you must comment below in comment box.

For Knowing more about the introduction of light you must watch this video.



Types Of Switches

In this article we learn about how many types of switches . we will also know about types and their application of switches.

Types of switches

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In any electrical circuit various types of switchs are used to star or stop the flow of current. Depending upon work,construction and current rating, types of switches are given below.
Based on working methodology, various types of switches are given

1. Single Pole One Way Switch

This is the simplest form of switch. It is used to ON/OF any electrical appliance.

Single Pole Two Way switch

It has one pole and two paths, it is used to ON/OFF one out of two lamps or it is used in staircase circuits which is controlled by two locations.
Intermediate Switch 
It is a four terminal device. The intermediate connections can be horizontal to principal axis or cross form. It is used to control electrical appliance from three or more places.

2. Push Button Switch

Push button switch consists of a spring control mechanism. On pressing the switch, the current starts flowing in the circuit until thee switch remains pressed while on releasing the switch, the flow of current stops. Such switches are used in electric bell, buzzer,matches,etc. push button switches are of two types push to ON switch and push to OFF switch.

3. Ceiling Switch

It is a push button type of switch. This types of swiches is employed in wiring inside a structure, operated by a pulling motion on a chain or cord,mounted to the ceiling .
On pushing/pulling one time current starts to flow in the circuit. The circuit is ON pulling/pushing next time current stops to flow in the circuit that is off.  It is also called as bed lamps, night lamps, table lamps, etc.

4. Double Pole Iron Clad or DPIC switch

It works as a main type of switch. it used  as main switch for single phase AC/DC. A fuse is connected in series with each line. It is used for controlling single phase 2-wire circuits. The switch switches ON/OF the phase line and neutral line simultaneously.

5. Three Pole Iron Clad or TPIC Switch

It works as a main switch for 3-phase AC line. It is used for controlling a 3-phase power with 4-wire system. A fuse and a neutral link is connected in series with each line. The switch switches ON/OFF all the three phase lines simultaneously.

6. Knife Switch

It is an uncovered switch can handle large amount of current. They are used in substations or distribution stations. They are constructed for 30A to 1000A current. These switches can be so single throw, double throw and 3-phases types.

7. Tumbler types of switches

These types of switches are surface mounted switches, they can be of one pole one way and one pole two way switch types. These switches are rarely used.
Flush type of switch
These types of switches are fitted inside the surface of switch boards and only the lever of switch is outside the boards and only the lever of switch is outside the board. They can be of one pole one way and one pole two way switch types. These types of switches are used now-a-days.

8. Toggle Switch

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These types of switches are fitted inside the surface of switch board and only the metallic lever and a brass ring is visible. They can be of one pole one way, one pole two way and intermediate seitch types. They are used in electrical and electronic appliances.

9. Slide Switch

These types of switches are fitted inside the surface of switch board and only the lever is visible. They can be of one way; one pole two ways and multiple poles multiple way switch type.

Hence it is main types of switches if you will find any incorrect above article please comment below in comment box.

If you want to know more about the types of switches you must watch this video.

Field Effect Transistor Working

In this article we learn about the Field effect transistor working and their application. We will also know that main construction of field effect transistor.

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Field Effect Transistor Working

field effect transistor working and application, FET working , field effect transistor working principle
The field effect transistor (FET) is a three terminal uni polar semiconductor device in which current is controlled by an electric field. FETs are labeled as uni polar devices because it can carry either holes or electrons. FET are mainly used in logic circuits, in TV receivers and as an amplifier.  Hence it is the field effect transistor working, for knowing more about the Field effect transistor we need to know about construction of FET.

Construction of FET( field effect transistor).

For better understand about field effect transistor working we must know about the construction of FET. So here construction of FET given below.

field effect transistor working and application, FET working , field effect transistor working principle

A FET can be fabricated with either N-channel or P-channel so the N-channel is preferred for fabricating N-channel FET. A narrow bar of n-type semiconductor is taken and two P-type junctions ate diffused on opposite sides of its middle part as shown in diagram. These two junctions form two p-n diode or gates and the area remains between the two gates is called channel. The two gates are connected internally and a single connecting lead is brought out of the device which is called the gate terminal. In this construction whole field effect transistor working depends.
Two leads are joined to the bar, one on each side and they are called source and drain. The p-type channel FET is similar in construction except that it uses p-type bar and two n-type junctions.
FET has three terminals by means of which the electrical connection is provided. Field effect transistor working depends on these three terminals.

1. Source

It is the terminal through which majority charge carriers enter the channel.

2. Drain

It is the terminal through which is formed by joining internally the two impurity reigns. It controls the travelling of majority carriers from source  drain.

3. Gate 

it is the terminal which is formed by joining internally the two impurity regions,. it constrols the travelling of majority carriers from source to drain.

field effect transistor working and application, FET working , field effect transistor working principle

FET parameters

 It is more need to know about the FET parameter for know about field effect transistor working.
Some of the parameters of a FET when connected in common source configuration are as follows.

AC Drain Resistance

It is the ratio of change in drain source voltage to the change in drain current at constant gate source voltage.
Its unit is ohm. It is also known as dynamic drain resistance.
Amplification Factor
It is the ratio of change in drain source voltage to the change in gate source voltage at constant drain current.

Input Impedance

The Impedance available at the gate terminal is termed as input impedance. A FET has a high input impedance because the gate is reverse biased and gate current is negligible.
Output Impedance
The impedance available at the drain terminal of FET is termed as output impedance. A FET has low output impedance because the drain current has a high magnitude.

Application of FET( field effect transistor).

 After knowing about the field effect transistor working we also need to know about the application of FET.
Some of the important applications of FET are stated under.

1. Since, FET has high input impedance and low output impedance, it is widely used as buffer and in measuring in instruments and in receivers.

2. FETs are used in communication equipment’s for low noise level.

3. Since, FETs have low input capacitance; they are also used in cascade amplifiers used in measuring and testing instruments.

4. FET is a voltage controlled device so it is also used as a voltage variable resistor in op-amps.

5. FETs are used in mixer circuits in FM and TV receivers.

6. FETs are smaller in size in size as compared to BJT so they are mostly used in digital circuits and ICs.s

Hence it is the field effect transistor working and application if you will find any incorrect above please comment below in comment box.

For knowing more about the field effect transistor working and application you must watch this video.

Photodiode working

In this article we will learn about the photodiode working. we will know about application of photodiode.

Photodiode working

photodiode working , working of photodiode, application of photodiode

A photodiode is a semiconductor device with a p-n junction converts light into current. When the light is incident upon it, the photons are absorbed which results in the generation of current. The amount of current produced depends on the intensity of incident light.

It is important to note that a small amount of current is also produced even when no light is present. Since, larger the surface area, higher the amount of current produced so, the surface area of the photodiode is made larger. A photodiode is designed to operate in reverse bias. The structure of a p-n photodiode is quite simple. It consists of a very thin wafer of anti-reflective (AR), coating of selenium or silicon (0.002 to 0.006thick).

This wafer emits electrons when it is subjected to light rays. A silver wafer acting as anode is also placed in the device to collect the electrons. The symbol of p-n photodiode and its constructional view are shown below. So these are photodiode working. Here some application given below of photodiode.

Application of Photodiode

After knowing about the photodiode working we need to know about the application of photodiode. So these are some photodiode.

A Photo diode is used in some electronics equipment’s developed in different fields.

1. It is used in some consumer electronic devices such as CD players, bar code scanners, brightness control etc.

2. It is used in safety equipment’s such as smoke detectors, flame monitors, etc.

3. It is used in communications such as in fiber optic links. Optical communications, optical remote control

4. It is also used in medical equipment’s such as in CAT (computed axial tomography) scanners for X-ray detection, blood practice analyzers, etc.

5. It may also be used to change the state of circuitry.

Hence it is the photodiode working and application. If you will find any incorrect above please comment below.

If you want to know more about the photodiode working you must watch this video.