Difference between fuse and circuit breaker

In this article we will discuss about the difference between fuse and circuit breaker.
Difference between fuse and circuit breaker


                       Circuit breaker

1.   It has a Rated Current (IN), which is the maximum rated current before the breakdown. Rated Voltage is the minimum voltage at which the circuit will be open due to melting of the wire.
It has also a rated current but there are different ratings, according to relay setting we can change rating of circuit breaker.

2.   The  fuse is a circuit element that is a one-time use element,  simply we can say that fuse is a piece of wire which connect two conductor terminal and provide softy  from different fault, as like short circuit, earth fault , over current fault.
The circuit breaker is a electromagnetically device which is used for connecting to conductor terminal and provide safety,, basically it used for connecting two conductor and provide safety from different fault.
3.  It is not re settable,,, or one time use. Fuse is a device which use only one type it has not reset option because after occurring fault, it become melt.
 But circuit breaker is re settable, and it works on magnetic attraction. It have magnetic coil according to setting it work on different rating.

4.  The fuse is less costly than circuit breaker; it is only a conductor wire which uses to connect two conductor terminals.

The circuit breaker is more costly than fuse because it has different other component, as like rely.
Operation of fuse is inherently complete automatic.                                 Elaborate components such as relays are used for automatic action
5.  It performs both detection and interruption. It has not extra system for detection. It works both detection and interruption.

·         But circuit breaker performs only interruption, which means fault is detected by the rely system provide for this purpose.
6.  The operation of fuse is very less (0.002 sec). It is use for low rating and for less costly equipment.
The operation of circuit breaker is very fast. It has use for heavy and high costly equipment.
7.   It is has use for only protection from normal fault.  
It has use for different protection of different fault.

 Hence it is the basic difference between fuse and circuit breaker, if you will find any incorrect above please comment below in comment box.

For knowing more about the difference between fuse and circuit breaker you must watch this video.

Difference between electrical and electronics

In this article we will discuss about the  main difference between electrical and electronics. Will discuss in detail of main difference between electrical and electronics engineering.

difference between electrical and electronics, main difference between electronics and electrical

Difference between electrical and electronics.


1. In this field we studied about the utilization or application of flow of electrons.

It is the field of engineering in which we study about flow of charge (electron and holes).

2. This Technology is a field of engineering technology related to Electronics and Electrical Engineering which deals in transmission, generation & distribution of electrical energy and its application.

This technology is a field of engineering technology related to electrical and electronic engineering which deals , electronic itomes ,electronic device , digital equipment and its application.

3. The main difference between electrical and electronics equipment, take example of electrical appliances at your home like oven, fan work on AC.

For example tablets , mobile, computer , and other related equipment consider in electronic system.

4. In this engineering working voltage is very HIGH VOLTAGES and low constant frequency. For example 60HZ. And voltage is 220V, 440V.

In electronic engineering working voltage is low but its frequency is very high. for example , mega HZ, voltage is 6V,10V
5. In this device there is no connection of battery, as like fan, oven, are called electrical device. Are called electrical device.

Which device connect with battery as like, transistor, electronic capacitor ,diode etc.

6. The main difference between electrical and electronics is, in electrical we study current through conductor. Electronics we study current through semiconductors. And in electrical we study current through conductor

In electronic engineering we study about current through semiconductor. . Both are independent but highly related with each other. Becaz the aim of both branches is utilize current for useful purposes.

7. In this type device take the energy of electric current and transform it in simple ways into some other form of energy as like, light, heat, or different motion. As example The heating elements in a toaster turn electrical energy into heat so you can burn your toast.

Electronic devices are designed to manipulate the electrical current itself to coax it into doing interesting and useful things.

8. In electrical system large current required for operate of electrical circuit., as like heater, toaster etc.

In an electronic system small current required for operation of electronic circuit.

9. This is the field of Engineering that generally deals with the study and also application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

Electronic field is an Engineering discipline where non-linear and active  electronics and electrical components and also devices such as electron tubes, and semiconductor devices, especially diodes, transistor and also integrated circuits, etc. electronic circuits,

10. In electrical system electrical component larger than electronic component , as like transformer, capacitor etc.

In electronic system electronics component smaller than electrical component, as like transformer. Capacitor its.

 Hence it is the main basic difference between electrical and electronics if you will find any incorrect above please comment below in comment box.

For knowing more about the difference between electrical and electronics . you must watch this video

Breaking of dc motor

In this article we will discuss about the breaking of dc motor. we will also learn that how to stop a dc motor

Breaking of D.C Motor

Breaking is used for stopping for a motor and its load. Mechanical braking and electric breaking are used. In case of mechanical breaking it is difficult to achieve a smooth stop because it depends on the condition of the breaking surface and on operator skills. The electric breaking may be done for various reasons such as.

Main reason of breaking of dc motor

1. To extend the brake power of the mechanical brakes.
2. Increase the life of mechanical breaks
3. To generate the electrical power and improve the energy efficiency.
4. in emergencies to stop the machine instantly.
5. in production process by reducing the stopping time.

Electric breaking is simple. The electric motor can be made to work as a generator by suitable terminal conditions and absorb mechanical energy. This converted mechanical power is dissipated / used for electrical network.

Breaking can be broadly classified into various

1. Dynamic breaking

2. Regenerative breaking

3. Reverse voltage breaking or plugging

1. Dynamic breaking

In dynamic breaking the motor is disconnected from the supply and connected to a dynamic breaking resistance. In figure. This is done by changing the switch from position one to  two . The supply  to the field should not be removed. Due to the rotation of the armature during motoring mode and due to the inertia, the armature continues to rotate. An Emf is induced due to the presence of the field and the rotation.
This voltage drives a current through the breaking resistance. The direction of this current is opposite to the one which was flowing before change in the rotation.
This voltage drives a current through the braking resistance. The direction of this current is opposite to the one which was flowing before change in the connection.
Therefore, torque developed also gets reversed. The machine acts like a brake. The torque speed characteristics separate by excited shunt of the machine under dynamic breaking mode is as shown in figure. For a particular value. The positive torque corresponds to the motoring operation. Here the machine behaves as a self-excited generator. Below a certain speed the self-excitation collapses and the braking action becomes zero.

2.Regenerative breaking

breaking  of dc motor ,,  dc motor breakingThis braking is commonly used in electric trains. This braking is applied when the load on the motor has overhauling characteristics as in downgrade motion of an electric train. Regenerating occurs when back EMF> voltage. When the overhauling load acts as a prime mover and so drives the machine as a generator.  Hence, armature current changes, so armature torque is reversed and speed falls until Back EMF < voltage. During slowing down of the motor, power is returned to the line which may be used for supplying another train on an upgrade.

3. Reverse voltage breaking or plugging

In this method, connections to the armature terminals are reversed so that motor tends to run in the opposite direction as shown in figger.  Due to the reversal of armature connections. Applied voltage V and back EMF start acting in the same direction around the circuit. In order to limit the armature current to a reasonable value. It is necessary to insert a resistor in the circuit while reversing armature connections.
This breaking is commonly used in controlling elevators; rolling mills etc. here the connection to the armature terminals is reversed so that motor tends to run in the opposite direction. Because of this reversal, both applied voltage and back EMF start acting in the same direction.  A resister is inserted I the circuit to limit the armature current to exceed the limit.

single phase series motor

In this articale we will disscuss about the single phase series motor, we will disscuss in detail that what is single phase series motor.
single phase series motor and their working

Single phase series motor

When a dc drives motor equipped with a laminated field is connected  to ac single phase, the lagging reactance of the field coil will reduce the field current. While starting such a motors, armature windings connected to commutator segments shorted by the brushes look like shorted transformer turns to the filed. 

This leads to arcing and sparking at the brushes as the armature begins to turn. This problem is more when speed increases, which shares the arcing and sparking between commutator segments. The lagging reactance and arcing brushes are only tolerable in very small uncompensated series ac motors operated at high speed. Series ac motors smaller than hand drills and kitchen mixers may be UN compensated.

single phase series motor and their working

According to figger the circuit diagram for speed control of an ac series motor using triac. If the firing angle is increased, the voltage available across the motor will decrease, changing the speed of the motor.

Electric arc welding

In this article we will discussed about the electric arc welding . we will discussed different type of material which are used in electric arc welding.

Electric arc welding

electric arc welding, types of electric arc welding, electric arc welding working

Electric arc welding is that processes in which the pieces of the metal to be welded the pieces of the metal to be welded are brought to the proper welding temperature at point of contact by the heat liberated at the arc terminals and in the arc stream so that the metals are completely fused into each other forming a single solid homogeneous mass after it solidifies. In this processes an electric arc is produced by bringing two conductors (electrode and metal piece) conducted to suitable source of electric current momently in contact and then separating by a small distance. The current continuous to flow across the small gap and gives intense heat. The heat developed is utilized to melt a part of the work piece and the filer metal and thus from the joint. The heat developed by arc is also used for cutting of metal.

Types of electric arc welding

There are electric arc welding is divided in two part

1. Bare metal electric Arc welding

 2. Shielded metal welding

 1. Bare metal  electric Arc welding

In this type of welding a metal rod of the same metal as being welded from one of the electrode and also serves as filler a no filler rod is used separately. The arc strut between the work being welded and the electrode cause the melted rod to flow across the arc into the metal pool of the parent metal. This deposition of metal is accomplished by contact made between the molten metal and the global formed on the end of the electrode causes a small part of the work being welded to melt almost instantaneously and end intermittent flow of metal across the arc stream.
The metal in the arc system is in both the liquid and gaseous form the liquid metal being transferred across the by molecule are attraction, adhesion, cohesion, surface tans an or combination of piece.
For this type of welding both AC and DC can be used. For DC supply 50 to 60 volt and AC supply 70 to 100 volt are used for welding.
For current above 750Amp

AC equipment is preferred as it has high efficiency, negligible loss at no load and minimum maintained and initial cost.
electric arc welding, types of electric arc welding, electric arc welding working

2. Shielded metal welding

1. Carbon arc welding 

2. Metal arc welding

3. Submerged but arc welding

1. Carbon arc welding

In this type electric arc welding carbon material are used for welding. Carbon metal have some additional properties which cause it is used in electric arc welding.
Advantage of cordon electrode
The main advantage of carbon material in electric arc welding
The carbon is is very stable and easy to maintain. The length of arc can be varied over wide limits without causing the arc to go out. Carbon arc welding have a high melting speed and efficient welds are the main advantage.
Process of electric arc welding
In this process a cordon or graphite rod is used as negative electrode and the works being welded as a positive. Mostly graphite electrode is used as they yield. Longer life and have low resistance and thus capable of conducting more current. The arc produced between two electrodes; heat the metal to the melting temperature this is above 3200 degree on the negative electrode.  Negative electrode and 3900 degree on the positive electrode.
The reason the use of carbon rod  as negative electrode is that  will be generated at the electrode tip then that at the work piece and carbon from the electrode will  not fuse and mix up with the job . if this so happen the resultant weld will be rich in carbon and consequently very much brittle and  up sound this type of welding only dc can be used. The use of AC is not recommended because not fixed polarity can be maintained.
Carbon arc welding is employed for welding steal brass, Bronze and aluminum.
Demerit of carbon material in electric arc welding
It is not suitable for vertical and overhead welding

Hence it is the main type of electric arc welding and their working if you will find any incorrect above article please comment below.

For knowing more about electric arc welding you must watch this video.

Parallel operation of transformer

In this article we will learn about the parallel operation of transformer, we will learn how to connect two transformers in parallel. Will also learn condition of parallel operation of transformer.

Parallel operation of transformer

parallel operation of transformer,transformer parallel operation, condition of parallel operation
Parallel operation, it means simply that two or more transformers are connected to the same supply bus bars on the primary side and to a common or same bus bar or load on the secondary side.
Such requirement is frequently encountered in practice. The reasons that necessitate parallel operation are as follows.

Reason of parallel operation of transformer

These are some reason of parallel operation of transformer. Form this we can understand that why we need parallel operation transformer.

1. Non-availability of a single large transformer to meet the total load requirement.

2. The power demand might have increased over a time necessitating augmentation of the capacity. 

More transformers connected in parallel will then be pressed into service.

3. To ensure improve reliability. Even if one of the transformers gets into a fault or is taken out for maintenance or repair, the load can continued to be serviced.

4. To reduce the spare capacity. if many smaller size transformers are used, one transformer can be used as spare. If only one large transformer is feeding the load, a spare of similar rating has to be available. The problem of spares becomes more acute to transport smaller ones to site and work them in parallel.

5. When transportation problems limit installation of large transformers at site, it may be easier to transport smaller ones to site and work them in parallel.

According to figure the physical arrangement of two single phase transformer s working in parallel on the primary side. Transformer A and transformer B are connected to input voltage bus bars .ascertaining the polarities they are connected to output of load bus bars. Certain conditions have to be met before two or more transformers are connected in parallel and share a common load satisfactorily.
They are,
these are also some essential condition of parallel operation of transformer

1. Both transformer voltage ratio is same

2. The per unit impedance of each transformer is also must be same

3.  Both transformer polarity also must be same , so that there is no circulating current between the transformers.

4. Both transformer phase sequence must be same and no phase difference must exit between the voltages of the transformers.

These condition is mostly required for parallel operation of transformer(single phase).

Condition of parallel operation of transformer

1. Same voltage ratio

Generally the voltage ratio and turns ratio are taken to be the same or similar. If the ratio is large, there can be considerable error in the voltages even if the turn’s ratios are the similar. When the primaries are connected to similar bus bars, if the secondary do not show the similar voltage, paralleling them would result in a circulating current between the secondary’s. Reflected circulating current will be there on the primary side also. So it is required for parallel operation of transformer.

2. Per unit impedance

Transformers of different ratings may be required to operate in parallel. If they have to share the total load in proportion to their ratings the larger transformer has to draw more current. The voltage drop across each transformer has to be the same by virtue of their connection at the input and the output ends. Thus the larger transformers have smaller impedance and smaller transformer s have larger ohmic impedance. Thus the impedance's must be in the inverse ratios off the ratings. As the voltage drops must be the same, the per unit impedance of each transformer on its own base, must equal. In addition, if active and reactive power is required to be shared in proportion to the ratings, the impedance and per unit reluctance of both the transformers must be the same for proper load sharing.

3. Polarity of connection

The polarity of connection in the case of single phase transformer can be either same or opposite. Inside the loop formed by the two voltages get added and short circuit results. In the case of polyphone banks, it is possible to have permanent phase error between the phases with substantial turns ratios in such groups can be adjusted to give very close voltage ratios but phase errors cannot be compensated. Phase error of .6 degree gives rise to one percent difference in voltage. Hence, poly phase transformers polarity connection must proper. It is most required for parallel operation of transformer.

4. Phase sequence

The phase sequence of operation
becomes relevant only in the case of poly systems. The poly phase banks belonging to same vector group can be connected in parallel. A transformer with +30 degree phase angle however can be paralleled with the one with -30 degree phase angle, the phase sequence is reversed for one of them both at primary and secondary terminals..
parallel operation of transformer,transformer parallel operation, condition of parallel operation

hence these are some condition of parallel operation of transformer if you will fined any incorrect above please comment below.

For knowing more about the parallel operation of transformer please sea this video.

Autotransformer working

In this articale we will disscuss about the autotransformer working and application. we will discuss in detail that what is autotransformer.

1. Autotransformer working

autotransformer working, application of autotrasformer,what is autotransformer

Basically autotransformer working is same simple transformer but some difference in this type transformer only one winding are available but in case of simple transformer which have two winding.

2. Autotransformer working and construction

The primary and secondary windings of a two winding transformer have induced EMF in them due to a common mutual flux. The currents drawn by these two winding are out of phase by 180 dgree. This prompted the use of a part of the primary as primary as secondary. This is equivalent to fusing the secondary turn into primary turns. The fused section need to have a cross sectional area of the conductor to carry (secondary current – primary current) ampere. This ingenious thought led to the invention of an auto transformer.

for more learning of autotransformer working please s show the diagram the physical arrangement of an auto transformer. Total number of turns between A and C are primary turns. At point B a connection is taken. Section AB has secondary turns, As the volts per turn, which is proportional to the flux in the transformer, is the same for the whole winding,

Primary voltage:  secondary voltage = Primary turns:  secondary turns

For simplifying analysis, the magnetizing current of the transformer is neglected. When the secondary winding delivers a load current which is the magnetizing ampere turns. This will be countered by a primary current flowing from the source through the primary turns such that

 Primary current x secondary turns = Secondary current x primary turns

3. Advantage of an autotransformer

1. for the same capacity and voltage ratio, an autotransformer requires less winding material than a two-winding transformer. Hence, there is saving in copper.

2. An auto transformer is smaller in size and cheaper than a two winding transformer of same output.

3. An auto transformer has higher efficiency since, core loss and ohmic  losses are smaller.

4. Voltage regulation of an autotransformer is better because of reduced voltage drops in the resistance and reactance.

5. An auto transformer has variable output voltage when a sliding contact is used for the secondary.

4. Disadvantage of an autotransformer

1. There is direct connection between the high voltage and low voltage side. If there is an open circuit in the winding BC. The full primary voltage would be applied to the secondary. This high voltage may cause serious damage to the equipment’s connected on the secondary side.

2. The short circuit current is larger for an autotransformer due to reduced internal impedance.

5. Application of autotransformer

1. Autotransformers are used for obtaining continuously variable ac voltage.

2. They are used fro interconnection of power systems of different voltage levels.

 3. They are applied for boosting of a.c. mains voltage by a small amount .

4.  Autotransformers are used for starting the induction motors and synchronous motors.