Difference between CT and PT, Current Transformer and Potential Transformer

In this article we will know about what is difference between CT and PT . we will also know short description of CT and PT. So these are some difference between PT and CT.

Difference between CT and PT , ct and pt difference

Difference between CT and PT

       CT (Current Transformer)
    PT  (Potential Transformer)
1. The primary winding current in CT is independent of the secondary winding circuit condition.
The primary winding current is PT depends on secondary circuit burden.
2. In case of CT , it is connected in series with one line and a small voltage exist across its terminals, however CT carries the full line current.
In |PTs full line voltage is impressed upon its terminals.
3. The primary winding current and excitation of a CT vary over wide limits in normal operation.

In case of PT , it is under normal operation the line voltage is nearly constant and therefore the flux density and exciting current of a PT varies only over a restricted range .
4. The CT may be through as a series transformer under virtual short circuit conditions.
The PT may be considering as parallel transformer with its secondary winding operating under open circuit conditions.
6. The secondary of a C.T cannot be open during maintenance.
The secondary of  a P.T can be open circuited maintenance or during testing.
7. In case of CT primary current is independent of the secondary circuit condition.
In case of PT , its primary current is depend on secondary circuit condition.
8. It can be consider as a series transformer
It can be consider as a parallel transformer.
9. By the help of CT , a 5A ammeter can be measured higher current.  As like 400A.
With the help of PT , A 230 Voltmeter can be measured thousand volt. As like 11KV.
10.  CT is used for current measurement
PT is used for Voltage measurement

Hence these are some difference between CT and PT if you will find any incorrect in above article you must comment in comment box.

Basic Electrical Question and Answer

In this article we will study of basic electrical question and which is mostly asked in interview. We will know all basic electrical question and answer.

Basic Electrical questions and answer

Basic electrical question and answer, electrical interview question and answer

1.  DC basics and networks questions and answer

1. What is drifting current?

The steady flow of electrons in one direction caused by the applied electric field constitutes electric current, called the drift current.

2. What are limitations in ohms law?

Ohms law cannot be applied to the circuits consisting of electronic tubes or transistors (because such element are not bilateral) and 2. Nonlinear elements such as powdered iron, electric arc etc.

3. What is meant by potential divider?

The potential divider is a high resistance connected across the supply mains and is used to provide a variable voltage from a constant supply voltage.

4. What is the principle of duality?

Two physical systems or phenomena are called dual if they are described by equations of the same mathematical form. The principle of duality holds goods for series and parallel circuits.

5. What is mean by node?

A junction or node is a point in a network where two or more branches meet.

6. Distinguish between mesh and loop of networks.

A loop is a closed path in a network formed by a number of connected braches. Mesh is a loop that contains no other loop within it.

7. State the super position theorem

In a network of linear impedances containing more than one source, the current which flows at any point is algebraic/ phasor sum of all currents which would flow at that point if each source was considered separately and all other sources are replaced by their internal impedances. In basic electrical question and anshwer mostyly asked about the super position theorem.

8. what is utility of thevnin theorem

The venin‘s theorem is advantageous when we are to determine the current in a particular element of linear bilateral network particularly when it is desired to find out the current which flows through a resister for its different values. It makes the solution of the complicated networks ( particularly electronic networks) quite simple.

9. why terminal potential of a cell ( or a battery) is alwys less than its emf?.

Terminal potential of a cell (or a battery) is always less than its emf because some of the emf developed is used in overcoming the internal resistance of the cell (or a battery) itself. 

10. What is polarization vector?

The some of dipole moments per unit volume in a dielectric material is called the polarization vector or dielectric polarization, P.

11. What do you mean by solenoid and rotational fields?

A vector field that has a zero divergence is called the solenoid field and a vector field having a zero rotational everywhere is called an rotational field.

12. Define capacitance between two conductors. ?

Capacitance between any two conductors is the charge required to be added to increase potential by unit. Mathematically   , C = Q/V.

13. What is Fleming’s right hand rule?

According to Fleming’s right hand rule if the thumb, fore-finger and middle finger of the right hand are held mutually perpendicular to each other, forefinger pointing into the direction of the field and thumb in the direction of motion of conductor then middle finger will point in the direction of the induced emf. It is basic electrical question in electrical field.

14. What is hysteresis loss?

The energy expended in taking a specimen through a magnetic cycle is known as hysteresis loss. Hysteresis loss is very basic electrical question in case of transformer.

15. What is the effect of self-induction in a dc circuit?

The self-induction opposes the change of current in a dc circuit.

16. How can eddy current and hysteresis losses be minimized?

Hysteresis loss can be minimized by choosing a core material with low hysteresis coefficient such as low carbon steel, silicon alloys, and alloy steel. so these are basic electrical question and answer post basic electrical question. 

17. What is see beck effect?

The absorption or evolution of heat energy, if a current is allowed to flow in a conductor having its different parts at different temperatures is known as Thomson effect.

2. Ac basics electrical question

Here we will know about some AC basic question and answer.

1. Why the RMS value of an alternating current or voltage is used to denote its amplitude?

RMS value of an alternating current or voltage is used to denote its amplitude because it is related to the power developed in a resistance by the alternating current or voltage.

2. What is armature value of an alternating or voltage?

The effective or RMS value of an alternating current is given by that steady current which when flows through a given resistance alternating current is flowing through the same résistance for the same time duration.

3. What is significance of form factor?

Form factor is a means of relating the mean value with the effective or RMS value of alternating quantity and it is useful in determination of effective or RMS values of the alternating quantities whose mean or average values over half a period can be determined conveniently.

4. What is the significance of peak factor?

Knowledge of peak factor  of an alternating voltage is very essential in connection with determining the dielectric strength since the dielectric stress developed in an insulating material is proportional the peak value of the voltage applied to it.

5. Why is the inductor usually iron cored?

Inductors or choke coils are made of iron core because large valued flux densities can be produced in iron cores and so inductance of large value can be had. Air-cored inductors become too much bulky to provide an inductance of required value.

6. What is skin effect?

The phenomenon of concentration of an electric current near the surface of the conductor is known as skin effect.

7. What is the active and reactive power?

The power which is actually consumed or utilized in an ac circuit is called the true or active power of the circuit power is consumed only in resistance. It is given by the product of the circuit voltage current and power factor.
A pure inductor and a pure capacitor do not consume any power, as in a quarter cycles whatsoever is drawn from the supply source by these components, the same is returned to the supply source in the other quarter cycle. This power which flow back and forth (in both direction in the circuit) or reacts itself is called reactive e power. This is also known as wattles power. The reactive power of an ac circuit is given by the product of voltage current sine wave angle.

3. DC machines electrical questions

Here we will study about some basic dc machine question and answer.

1. Why energy storing capacity of magnetic field is much larger than that of electric field

Because the value of permittivity of free space is very small compared to permeability of free space.

2. What is the main factor which governs the size and rating of electric machine?

“Temperature rise” is the main factor which governs the size and rating of an electric machine.

3. What information’s should the rating of a machine give?

The rating of an electrical rotating machine should include the output, voltage, speed and any other information that may be necessary for the proper operation of machine.

4. In which terms are dc machines rated?

The dc machines are rated in terms of KW output at a given speed and voltage.

5. Why the coils used in commercial generator do consist of several turn in series?

It is done so as to increase the magnitude of generated EMF, being in direct proportion to the number of turns in the coil.

6. Why is the armature core of a dc machine laminated?

To reduce the eddy current loss.

4. Electrical power generation interview question and answer

Here we will know about some basic power generation electrical question and answer.

1. What are the reasons of power crises in India?

The causes, which are responsible for power crises in India, are sharp increase in demand, poor utilization of electrical equipment, high transmission losses, the delay in commissioning of power high transmission losses, the delay in commissioning of power projects, erratic monsoons, shortage of coal, faulty planning and plant outages.

2. What is meant by catchment area?

The catchment area is the area, bounded by water sheds, which drains into a stream or river across 3. which the dam has been built at a suitable place.

3. What is hydro graph?

A hydro graph is a graphical representation between discharge or flow with time.

4. What is the use of mass curve?

Mass curve is used in determination of the capacity of the storage reservoir in hydro-projects.

5. Why thermal power stations are always situated by the side of a river or lake?

The thermal power stations are always situated by the side of a river or lake so as to meet large quantity water requirement. Water is required in a steam power station to raise the steam in boilers.

5. What for surge tank is provided?

Surge tank is provided to absorb sudden changes in water requirements and reduce water hammer and negative pressure in pen stock.

5. Industrial and power electronic question and answer

1. What is power electronic?

Power electronics is a subject that concerns the application of electronic principles into situations that are rated at power level rather than signal level. Alternatively, it may also be defined as a subject that deals with the apparatus and equipment operating on the principle of electronics but rated at power level rather than signal level.

2. How is current limited in conducting state of an SCR?

 The current in conducting state of an SCR is controlled by external impedance.

3. What is false triggering?

False triggering is unintended turn-on of an SCR either through gate due to noise pick-up or excessive anode voltage.

Hence these are some basic electrical question and answer if you will find any incorrect in above please comment below in comment box.

If you want to know more electrical question and answer you must watch this video.

Control System Interview Questions

In this article we will study of control system interview question and answer. we will also learn in detail of various type interview question and answer.

Control System Interview Questions

control system interview questions, interview question and anshwer of control system

1. What is control system?

control system interview questions, interview question and anshwer of control system

A control system is an arrangement of physical components connected or related in such a manner as to command, direct or regulate in such a manner as to command, direct or regulate itself or another system.
Control system can be of two viz. open-loop control system and closed-loop control system.

2. What is feedback in control system? What are its characteristics?

Feedback is that property of a closed loop control system which allows the output or some other controlled variable of the system, to be compared with the input to the system, so that the appropriate control action may be formed as some function of the output and input.
A feedback is said to exist in a system if the cause and effect between variables is interrelated.

The characteristics of feedback are: increased bandwidth, increased accuracy, reduced distortion and non linearity and tendency towards oscillations or instability.this control system interview questions maximum ask in interviews.

3. What is system error?

The system error is the ideal value of the controlled variable minus the value of the final controlled variable.

4. What are control system components?

Various components employed in control systems are servo-motors, amplidynes, synchros, stepper motors, tachometers, gyroscopes etc.

5. Which types of servomotors generally lend themselves to small horse power requirements?

Two phase and shaded pole type induction motor are used.

6. Give one advantage of the two phase servomotor over the shaded pole type.

Better response to very small controls signals

7. Why are drag-cup-construction used in rotors of certain fhp machines for control purposes?

In drag-cup-construction all heavy iron lamination remain stationary and only a light cup rotates, so the inertia is quite small.

8. Why is series compensating winding employed in the amplidynes?

Compensating winding is connected in series with the power output brush terminals of the amplidyne to neutralize the armature reaction mmf set up by the load current and increase amplification factor.

9. Why area commutating poles required in amplidynes?

Com mutating poles are required in amplidynes to give satisfactory commutation

10. Why amplidynes are not extremely over-compensated

In case of extreme over-compensation, undesirable self-excitation of the amplidyne that is spontaneous rise in voltage and load current at constant control current (or with the control circuit open) can occur. Self-excitation can caus3e considerable over-loading of the amplidyne and totally disrupt operation of system containing the amplidynes. it most important control system interview question.

11. Why Amplidynes are provided with split-poles?

Amplidynes are provided with split-poles to provide space for inter poles.

12. What is stepper motor?

A motor in which the rotor turns in discrete movements is called a stepper motor.

13. What are the two types of stepper motors?

Permanent –magnet type and variable reluctance type motor are stepper motor.

14. For the same number of poles which stepper motor produces?

1. Largest stepping angle
2. Smallest stepping angle?
1. Permanent magnet type- largest stepping angle
2. Variable reluctance type-smallest stepping angle.

15. Where is stepper motor used?

Super motors are used in industrial situations which call for precise positioning of an object or precise control of speed without having to resort to closed-loop feedback. ,, it is most important question of control system.

16. How an ac tachometer is superior to dc tachometer.

AC tachometer does not cause any maintenance problem of commentators and brushes.

17. What is transfer function?

It is the mathematical expression that relates the system output to the system input and so describes the behavior of a system. It is expressed as ratio of the Laplace transform of the output variable to the lap lace transform of the input variable with the assumption that all the initial conditions are zero.

18. What is linear system?

A linear system is a system that follows the law of superposition and homogeneity.

19. What is analogous system?

Systems which are governed by the same types of equations are called analogous systems. Analogous systems may have entirely different physical appearances. For example, a given electrical circuit consisting of resistances, inductance and capacitance may be analogous to a mechanical system consisting of a suitable combination of dash pots, weights and springs or it may be analogous to an acoustical device consisting of an appropriate arrangement of fine mesh screens, tubes and cavities.

20. What is signal flow graph?

A signal flow graph is pictorial representation of the simultaneous equations describing a system. It graphically displays the transmission of signals through the system, as does the block diagram.
21. What is meant by overshoot?
Over shoot is maximum difference between the transient and steady-state solutions for a unit step function input.

22. Enlist the applications of sampled data systems.

Sampled data system finds applications in
1. High speed tin plate rolling mills using quantized data for control.
2. Numerically controlled machine tool operations.
3. Pulse controlled or digital controlled electric drives.
4. Large complex systems using telemetry links based on pulse modulation (PM) translation of data.

 Hence these are some control system interview question if you will find any incorrect in above article ou must comment below in comment box.

Difference between Impulse and Reaction turbine

In this article we will know about the difference between impulse and reaction turbine. We will know about the constructional difference between them.

1. Impulse Turbine

In impulse turbine steam is expanded in turbine nozzle and attains a high velocity. The steam jet impinges on the blades fixed on the rotor periphery. The rotor may be a built up rotor or integral rotor. A built up rotor consists of a forged steel shaft on which separate forged steel discs are shrunk and keyed. In an integral rotor the wheels and shaft are formed from one solid forging. The built up rotor is cheaper and easier to manufacture. However in integral rotor the discs cannot become loose. The high pressure and intermediate pressure rotor are, always, of integral type.
Difference between impulse and reaction turbine, difference between reaction and impulse turbine
In this turbine complete expansion of steam takes place in the nozzle and steam pressure, during the flow of steam over the turbine blades, remains constant. Thus the pressure on the two sides of the blades is the same. The blades have symmetrical profile.

2. Reaction Turbine

In a reaction turbine only partial expansion takes place in the nozzle and further expansion takes place as the steam flows over the rotor blades. The relative velocity of steam increases as it expands while passing over the blades. There is difference in pressure on two sides of the moving blade. The blades have aero foil section.
Difference between impulse and reaction turbine, difference between reaction and impulse turbine
It is seen from above that in a reaction turbine also partial expansion takes place in the nozzle which is an impulse action. As such all modern reaction turbines are basically impulse reaction but are designated as reaction turbines.
The modern reaction turbine has both stationary and moving blades. The blades are similar; each is so arranged that the area through which the steam leaves is less than that through which it enters. Pressure drop takes place in both stationary and moving blades. The restricted area at the out let of the blades causes the steam velocity to increase as steam leaves the blades.

Difference between Impulse turbine and Reaction Turbine

                 Impulse Turbine
                      Reaction Turbine
1. In this turbine only kinetic energy used to rotate the turbine.
In this turbine pressure energy and kinetic energy both are used to rotate the turbine. it is main difference between impulse and reaction turbine.
2. In impulse turbine water flow through the nozzle and strike the blade of turbine.
In Reaction turbine water is flow through guide blades.
3. In this turbine pressure energy converted into kinetic energy
In this turbine pressure energy does not converted into kinetic energy.
4 It
is suitable for large head and lower flow rate. For example peloton wheel turbines
It is mostly used for high flow rate and lower head
 5. The pressure of water always remains unchanged. These are main difference between impulse and reaction turbine.
In case of Reaction turbine the pressure of water changed.

Hence these are difference between impulse and Reaction turbine if you will find any incorrect above article you must comment below in comment box.

For knowing more about the difference between impulse and Reaction turbine you must watch this video.

How Potentiometer Works

In this article we will knwo that how potentiometer works ,we will also knwo about the types of ptentiometer.

How Potentiometer Works

Potentiometer is an instrument for measurement of unknown electromotive force (elf’s) or potential difference (pd) or voltage produced by flow of known current in a network of circuit s of known characteristic. Hence, we can say it is an instrument by which a unknown voltage is measured by comparing it with a known voltage.
how potentiometer works, application of potentiometer

Advantages of potentiometer

For better know about how potentiometer works we need to know also about the what is basic advantage of potentiometer.
1. High accuracy
2. No power consumption from the circuit.
3. Determination of voltage is quite independent of the source resistance.
Principle of how potentiometer works
For knowing how potentiometer works we need to must know of principle of potentiometer.
how potentiometer works, application of potentiometer
It works on the principle of opposing the unknown EMF by known emf with the negative terminals of the two emfs connected together and also positive terminals connected together through a galvanometer.

Types of potentiometers

These are also main point of how potentiometer works because we need to must know about which type potentiometer we are using in that time. Basically potentiometer classified in two types.
1. DC potentiometer
2. AC potentiometer

1. DC potentiometer

These are also many types
a. slide wire potentiometers
b. Laboratory type potentiometer
c. Multi-Range DC potentiometer
d. Verier potentiometer
e. Brooks deflection potentiometer
f. self-balancing potentiometer

B. Laboratory type potentiometer

It is a dc potentiometer in which high precision could be obtained without the use of long slide wire by adding is extensions coils, each equal in residence to the whole of slide wire. These are also main types of potentomer which must need to know for understand how potentiometer works.

3. Multi-range DC potentiometers

The potentiometer circuit is so designed that in whatever range if operate, current drawn from the battery remains the same and therefore, there is no need of readjustment.
There are two main advantages of having low ranges for measurement of small voltages.
a. the precision of reading is increased by one decimal place.
b. A greater part of the reading is made on the dial resistors which have inherently greater accuracy than slide wire.

d. Verier potentiometer

The advantages of Crompton potentiometer are overcome in varies potentiometer. The remain potentiometer use there measuring dials to include second measuring range of lower value and therefore is also known as; duo range potentiometer.
It makes use of kelvin in valley slide principle between the course and intermediate dials. This extends the reading accuracy by further decimal place.

E. Brooks Deflection potentiometer

Where circuit condition are so unsteady that the voltage under measurement varies, than it becomes very difficult or even impossible to obtain a balance. At the same time, for the measurement of moderate precision, exact balancing is time consuming and tedious. Brooks’s deflection potentiometer was developed to take care of this limitation. It is used for application where the voltage to be measured is continuously changing.
In brooks deflection potentiometer, an approximated balance is obtained and greater portion of voltage is reading from the setting of slide contacts. The remaining varying portion is measured from the deflection of galvanometer.

F. Self-balancing potentiometer

A self-balancing potentiometer helps in continuous measurement in non-electrical quantity and hence eliminates the constant attention operator. It is used in industry. In addition to its balancing feature it dras a curve of the quantity bogging measured with the help of recording mechanism.
In a self-balancing potentiometer, the unbalance emf is applied to AC anokufuer via converter. Winding of an AC servomotor. This drives the motor to more the potentiometer slider to balance.

2. AC potentiometer

AC potentiometer works  on the same principle as DC potentiometer except that in |AC potentiometer both magnitude and phase of the unknown emf must be same to obtain balance .
These are classified into two types
1. Polar type potentiometer
2. Co-ordinate type AC potentiometer

1. Polar type potentiometers

Also known as “dry sale polar potentiometer “, it measures the unknown emf  in polar from. In terms of its magnitude and relative phase. In this potentiometer, unknown emf is balanced by means of a single voltage which is continuously variable in both magnitude and phase.

2. Reactangular co-ordinate type potentiometer

Also known as “ gall tinsley potentiometer”. It measures unkown emf in terms of its rectangular coordinates. In this potentiometer, balance is obtained in terms of two voltages which are in quadrature each of these voltages is varied in magnitude and means is usually provided to adjust or check the quadrature phase relation.. hence these are also main type potentiometer which need study for knowing how potentiometer works.

Standarization of potentiometer

The standardization is done with the help of DC source  that is standard cell or a zener source and a transfer instrument ( usually a electrodynamometer type mili ammeter), it is so constructed that its response to alternating current is the same as its DC response.

Application of DC Potentiometer

1. Measurement of small EMF
2, calibration of voltammeter
3. Calibration of ammeter
4. Measurement of resistance
5. Measurement of power
6. Calibration of wattmeter

Application of AC potentiometer

1.  Measurement of self-inductance
2.  Ammeter calibration
3. Voltmeter calibration
4. Calibration of watt meter

Hence from these we can understand that how potentiometer works. If you will find any incorrect above article you must comment below in comment box.

For knowing more about how potentiometer works you must watch this video.

Construction of induction motor, stater and rotor of induction motor

In this article we will learn about the construction of induction motor. We will discuss about the rotor , stater of induction motor.

Construction of induction motor

Construction of induction motor, stater of induction motor, rotor of induction motor

Like any electric motor, a 3-phase induction motor has a stater and a rotor. The stater carries a 3-phase winding (called stater winding) while the rotor carries a short circuited winding (called rotor winding.) Only the stater
winding is fed from 3-phase supply. The rotor winding through electromagnetic induction and hence the name. The induction motor may be considered to be a transformer with a rotating secondary and it can, therefore, be considered as a “transformer type” a.c machine in which electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy. Construction of induction motor is simple and maintenance less.

Advantage Of Induction Motor

1. It has simple and rugged construction
2. It is relatively cheap
3. It requires little maintenance.
4. It has high efficiency
5. It has self-starting torque.
6. construction of induction motor is very simple.

Disadvantage Of Induction motor

1. It is essentially a constant speed motor and its speed cannot be changed easily.
2. Its starting torque is inferior to d.c shunt motor.

Stater of induction motor

Construction of induction motor, stater of induction motor, rotor of induction motor
It consists of a steel frame which encloses a hollow, cylindrical core made up of thin laminations of silicon steel to reduce hysteresis and eddy current losses. A number of evenly spaced slots are provided on the inner periphery of the laminations. The insulated connected to form a balanced three phase star or delta connected circuit. The three phase stator winding is wound for a definite number of poles as per requirement of speed. Greater the number of poles, lesser is the speed of the motor and vice-versa. When 3-phase supply is given to the stator winding, a rotating magnetic is produced. This rotating field induces currents in the rotor by electromagnetic induction.it is static part of construction of induction motor.

Rotor of induction motor

Construction of induction motor, stater of induction motor, rotor of induction motor
The rotor, mounted on a shaft, is a hollow laminated core having slots on its outer periphery. The winding placed in these slots (called rotor winding) may be one of the following two types:  it is rotating part of induction motor construction.
1. Squirrel cage type 2. Wound type

1. Squirrel cage rotor of Induction Motor

It consist s of a laminated cylindrical core having parallel slots on its outer periphery. One copper or aluminum bar is placed in each slot. All these bars are joined at each end by metal rings called end rings. This forms a permanently short-circuited winding which is indestructible. The entire construction (bars and end rings) resembles a squirrel cage and hence the name. The rotor is not connected to electrically to the supply but has current induced in it by transformer action form the stater.

Construction of induction motor, stater of induction motor, rotor of induction motor

Those induction motors which employ squirrel cage rotor are called squirrel cage induction motors. Most of 3-phase induction motors use squirrel cage rotor as it has a remarkably simple and robust construction enabling it to operate in the most adverse circumstances. However, it suffers from the disadvantage of a low starting torque. It is because the rotor bars are permanently short-circuited and it is not possible to add any external resistance to the rotor circuit to have a large starting torque.

2. Wound Rotor Of Induction Motor

It consists of a laminated cylindrical core and carries a 3-phase winding, similar to the one on the stater. The rotor winding is uniformly distributed in the slots and is usually star-connected .the open end of the rotor winding are brought out and joined to three insulated slip rings mounted on the rotor shaft with one brush resting on each slip ring. The three brushes are connected to a three phase star-connected rheostat. At starting, the external resistances are included in the rotor circuit to give a large starting torque. These resistances are gradually reduced to zero as the motor runs up to speed.
The external resistances are used during starting period only. When the motor attains normal speed, the three brushes are short-circuited so that the wound rotor runs like a squirrel cage rotor.

Hence these are construction of induction motor if you will find any incorrect above you must comment below in comment box.

 If you want to know more about the construction of induction motor you must watch this video.

Thermal power plants, construction and layout

Thermal power plants, construction and layout

Thermal power plants, also called steam power plant is based on fuel “coal”. In this the heat energy is converted into mechanical energy and then to electrical energy through turbine generator system. The heat energy is obtained by the combustion of coal, through which steam is produced. The discharged steam is exhausted by prime movers and then it is condensed by condenser to be fed into boiler.

thermal power plant construction layout, thermal power plant working , construction

Layout of thermal power plant

The thermal power plant can be sub-divided into following several small units.

1. Fuel handling plant
2. Ash handling plant
3. Boiler unit
4. Feed water plant
5. Cooling water plant
6. Generator unit
7. Turbine unit.

The schematic diagram is shown in fig. below
Various components of thermal power plant layout

1. Super heater

It converts the wet steam from boiler into dried steam at super-heated temperature (steam temp is increased beyond boiling point of water). Thus process improves the overall effinency of thermal plant.

2. Economizer

It uses the heat of flue gases coming from boiler to increase the temperature of feed water before it is supplied to boiler.

3. Air peachier

It uses the heat of flue gases to increase the temperature of air used for combustion of coal.

4. Steam turbine

It converts the thermal energy of steam of mechanical energy of turbine.

5. Condenser

It condenses the exhaust steam by cold water circulation.

6. Cooling tower

It is used to convert hot water from condenser into cold water to be reused for coaling exhausted steam in condenser.

Function of super heated steam

Super heated steam contains more heat than the saturated steam at same pressure. The additional heat provides more energy to the turbine and so electrical output is more. Superheated steam causes lesser erosion to turbine blades.
The function of super heated is to remove the last traces of moisture from the saturated steam leaving the boiler tube and rises the steam temperature.

Function of pulverized coal

Pulverization means increasing the surface area of coal that helps in combustion.
The advantage of pulverized coal is
1, the rate of combustion can be controlled and changed quickly to meet varying load.
2. The banking losses are reduced.
3. The percentage of excess air required is low.
4. Automatic combustion control can be used
5. Preheated air can be used successfully.
6, a wide variety of even low grade coals can be used.
7. The boiler can be started from cold conditions very rapidly.
8. Even fine wet can be used provided the conveying equipment can carry into palavering mill.
Function of pre located Air:
After the flue gas leave economizer, some further heat can be extracted cooling of flue gasses by 20 degree raises plant efficiency 1%.

Efficiency of thermal power plant

The overall efficiency of the thermal power plant is low. The overall plant efficiency does not exceed 40% and generally it is 30%. The main reason for low efficiency of thermal plants is poor efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle. The efficiency of thermodynamic cycle is about 45%.

Hence these are thermal power plant construction and layout. if you find any incorrect above you must comment below in comment box.