Construction of induction motor, stater and rotor of induction motor

In this article we will learn about the construction of induction motor. We will discuss about the rotor , stater of induction motor.

Construction of induction motor

Construction of induction motor, stater of induction motor, rotor of induction motor

Like any electric motor, a 3-phase induction motor has a stater and a rotor. The stater carries a 3-phase winding (called stater winding) while the rotor carries a short circuited winding (called rotor winding.) Only the stater
winding is fed from 3-phase supply. The rotor winding through electromagnetic induction and hence the name. The induction motor may be considered to be a transformer with a rotating secondary and it can, therefore, be considered as a “transformer type” a.c machine in which electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy. Construction of induction motor is simple and maintenance less.

Advantage Of Induction Motor

1. It has simple and rugged construction
2. It is relatively cheap
3. It requires little maintenance.
4. It has high efficiency
5. It has self-starting torque.
6. construction of induction motor is very simple.

Disadvantage Of Induction motor

1. It is essentially a constant speed motor and its speed cannot be changed easily.
2. Its starting torque is inferior to d.c shunt motor.

Stater of induction motor

Construction of induction motor, stater of induction motor, rotor of induction motor
It consists of a steel frame which encloses a hollow, cylindrical core made up of thin laminations of silicon steel to reduce hysteresis and eddy current losses. A number of evenly spaced slots are provided on the inner periphery of the laminations. The insulated connected to form a balanced three phase star or delta connected circuit. The three phase stator winding is wound for a definite number of poles as per requirement of speed. Greater the number of poles, lesser is the speed of the motor and vice-versa. When 3-phase supply is given to the stator winding, a rotating magnetic is produced. This rotating field induces currents in the rotor by electromagnetic induction.it is static part of construction of induction motor.

Rotor of induction motor

Construction of induction motor, stater of induction motor, rotor of induction motor
The rotor, mounted on a shaft, is a hollow laminated core having slots on its outer periphery. The winding placed in these slots (called rotor winding) may be one of the following two types:  it is rotating part of induction motor construction.
1. Squirrel cage type 2. Wound type

1. Squirrel cage rotor of Induction Motor

It consist s of a laminated cylindrical core having parallel slots on its outer periphery. One copper or aluminum bar is placed in each slot. All these bars are joined at each end by metal rings called end rings. This forms a permanently short-circuited winding which is indestructible. The entire construction (bars and end rings) resembles a squirrel cage and hence the name. The rotor is not connected to electrically to the supply but has current induced in it by transformer action form the stater.

Construction of induction motor, stater of induction motor, rotor of induction motor

Those induction motors which employ squirrel cage rotor are called squirrel cage induction motors. Most of 3-phase induction motors use squirrel cage rotor as it has a remarkably simple and robust construction enabling it to operate in the most adverse circumstances. However, it suffers from the disadvantage of a low starting torque. It is because the rotor bars are permanently short-circuited and it is not possible to add any external resistance to the rotor circuit to have a large starting torque.

2. Wound Rotor Of Induction Motor

It consists of a laminated cylindrical core and carries a 3-phase winding, similar to the one on the stater. The rotor winding is uniformly distributed in the slots and is usually star-connected .the open end of the rotor winding are brought out and joined to three insulated slip rings mounted on the rotor shaft with one brush resting on each slip ring. The three brushes are connected to a three phase star-connected rheostat. At starting, the external resistances are included in the rotor circuit to give a large starting torque. These resistances are gradually reduced to zero as the motor runs up to speed.
The external resistances are used during starting period only. When the motor attains normal speed, the three brushes are short-circuited so that the wound rotor runs like a squirrel cage rotor.

Hence these are construction of induction motor if you will find any incorrect above you must comment below in comment box.

 If you want to know more about the construction of induction motor you must watch this video.

Thermal power plants, construction, layout

Thermal power plants, construction, layout

Thermal power plants, also called steam power plant is based on fuel “coal”. In this the heat energy is converted into mechanical energy and then to electrical energy through turbine generator system. The heat energy is obtained by the combustion of coal, through which steam is produced. The discharged steam is exhausted by prime movers and then it is condensed by condenser to be fed into boiler.

thermal power plant construction layout, thermal power plant working , construction

Layout of thermal power plant

The thermal power plant can be sub-divided into following several small units.

1. Fuel handling plant
2. Ash handling plant
3. Boiler unit
4. Feed water plant
5. Cooling water plant
6. Generator unit
7. Turbine unit.

The schematic diagram is shown in fig. below
Various components of thermal power plant layout

1. Super heater

It converts the wet steam from boiler into dried steam at super-heated temperature (steam temp is increased beyond boiling point of water). Thus process improves the overall effinency of thermal plant.

2. Economizer

It uses the heat of flue gases coming from boiler to increase the temperature of feed water before it is supplied to boiler.

3. Air peachier

It uses the heat of flue gases to increase the temperature of air used for combustion of coal.

4. Steam turbine

It converts the thermal energy of steam of mechanical energy of turbine.

5. Condenser

It condenses the exhaust steam by cold water circulation.

6. Cooling tower

It is used to convert hot water from condenser into cold water to be reused for coaling exhausted steam in condenser.

Function of super heated steam

Super heated steam contains more heat than the saturated steam at same pressure. The additional heat provides more energy to the turbine and so electrical output is more. Superheated steam causes lesser erosion to turbine blades.
The function of super heated is to remove the last traces of moisture from the saturated steam leaving the boiler tube and rises the steam temperature.

Function of pulverized coal

Pulverization means increasing the surface area of coal that helps in combustion.
The advantage of pulverized coal is
1, the rate of combustion can be controlled and changed quickly to meet varying load.
2. The banking losses are reduced.
3. The percentage of excess air required is low.
4. Automatic combustion control can be used
5. Preheated air can be used successfully.
6, a wide variety of even low grade coals can be used.
7. The boiler can be started from cold conditions very rapidly.
8. Even fine wet can be used provided the conveying equipment can carry into palavering mill.
Function of pre located Air:
After the flue gas leave economizer, some further heat can be extracted cooling of flue gasses by 20 degree raises plant efficiency 1%.

Efficiency of thermal power plant


The overall efficiency of the thermal power plant is low. The overall plant efficiency does not exceed 40% and generally it is 30%. The main reason for low effiecny of thermal plants is poor efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle. The efficiency of thermodynamic cycle is about 45%.

Hence these are thermal power plant construction, layout. if you find any incorrect above you must comment below in comment box.

Induction type energy meter

in this article we will learn about the induction type energy meter. we will learn about the application of induction type energy meter.
induction type energy meter, adjustment of energy meter, application of energy meter

Induction type energy meter

Energy is total power delivered or consumed over a time interval,
Energy = power x Time
Electrical energy developed as work or dissipated as heat over an interval time t
Energy is an integrating type of instrument used for measurement of energy in domestic and industrial AC circuits.
Single phase induction type energy meter
Construction of induction type energy meter
In induction type energy meter mainly four part
induction type energy meter, adjustment of energy meter, application of energy meter

1. Driving system

Consists of two electromagnets made of silicon steel laminations.
Coil of one of the electromagnet (shunt magnet) is excited by load current known as current coil.
Coil of second electromagnet (series magnet) is connected across supply and carries a current proportional to voltage known as pressure coil.
Copper shading bands whose position is adjustable are provided on central limb to bring the flux exactly in quadrature with the applied voltage.

2. Moving system

Consist of an aluminum disc mounted on a light alloy shaft positioned in the air gap between magnets.
Shaft is pivoted on jewel bearings and a pinion engages it with counting or registering mechanism.

3. Breaking system

Breaking torque is required to control the speed of moving system. A permanent magnetism positioned near the edge of the aluminum disc to provide breaking torque.
This magnet induces eddy currents that produce the braking torque proportional to the speed of moving system.

4. Registering or counting mechanism

Records continuously a no. proportional to the revolutions made by moving system.
Train of gears drives a series of 4 or 5 pointers. There are two types of registers- pointer type and cyclometer register.

Adjustments of induction type energy meter

Some adjustments are carried out in energy meters so that they read correctly. They are,

1. Preliminary light load adjustment

Disc is so positioned that the holes are not under neath the electromagnets.
Reated voltage applied to pressure coil with no current in current coil.
Light load device adjusted until disc just fails to start.

2. Full load unity power factor adjustment

Rated voltage applied to pressure coil.
Rated full load current at upf passed through current coil.
Position of brake magnet adjusted so that disc revolves at correct speed.

induction type energy meter, adjustment of energy meter, application of energy meter

3. Lag adjustment (low power factor adjustment)

Rated voltage applied to pressure coil.
Rated full load current at .5 pf lagging passed through current coil.
Lag device adjusted so that disc revolves at correct speed.

4. Full load unity power factor adjustment and low power factor adjustment

Rated voltage applied to pressure coil.
Rated full load current at upf passed through current coil. Full load unity power factor adjustment and low power factor adjustment done so that disc revolves at correct speed.

5. Light load adjustment

Rated voltage applied to pressure coil.

Low current passed through current coil at upf.

Light load adjustment done so that disc revolves at correct speed.

Full load unity power factor and light load adjustment are gain done so that disc revolves at correct speed.

Performance is rechecked at .5 pf lagging.

Creep adjustment—pressure coils excited by 110% of rated voltage with zero load current. At this condition meter should not creep.
Hence it is the working of induction type energy meter , adjustment of induction type energy meter.

if you want to know more about the induction type energy meter you must watch this video.

Difference between renewable and nonrenewable energy sources

In this article we will learn about the difference between renewable and nonrenewable energy source will also know about what is advantage of renewable and nonrenewable source.

Renewable Energy Sources


Renewable energy produce from natural sources . which is like as,
wind energy, rain flow, tydel energy, solar energy, solar thermal power plant.
difference between renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, renewable and nonrenewable energy sources
Difference between renewable and nonrenewable energy sources

these energy can be used in various form as like sun energy, wind energy are used in form of electrical energy.

Advantage of Renewable energy source


1. The wind, geothermal, ocean energy are available in the abundant quantity and free to use.
2. the nonrenewable energy are limited form but it is unlimited.
3. it produce less pollution compare to nonrenewable sources
4. it is pollution less energy source.

Disadvantage of renewable energy sources


Renewable energy source plant cost is so high as compare to nonrenewable energy sources.
Nonrenewable energy sources

nonrenewable energy source is that which is available on earth in limited form. it produce more pollution and also in limited. But it can be easily used. as like , coal, petrol, diesel, kerosene etc.


Difference between renewable and nonrenewable energy sources

Difference between renewable and nonrenewable energy sources

     Renewable energy source
        Non-renewable energy source
1. Renewable energy source continuously available. Which means it is available in all time.
Non-renewable energy source will be exhausted one day. Simple it is not available at all time.
2. It is renewable source which means quickly replaced when used.
Non-renewable energy source cannot be quickly replaced when used.
3. It take short period for their formation
Non-renewable source take millions of years for their formation.
4.  It do not cause of much environmental pollution.

These are measure cases of environmental pollution.

5. We need not to conserve renewable energy sources.

We need to conserve non-renewable energy sources.

6. These are example, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, Bio mass energy.

None-renewable energy example are, coal .natural gas, hydro power and nuclear fission power.

7. In this plant large area is required for installation of this type plant.

In this plant less land area are required for installation of this type plant.

8. These type source plant maintenance cost is high that non-renewable.

These type plant mainatance cost is less than renewable source plant.

9.These resources life is infinite

Life of resources is infinite and vanishes one day


Hence these are main difference between renewable and nonrenewable energy sources. If you will find any incorrect in above article you must comment below in comment box.

For knowing more about the difference between nonrenewable and renewable energy source you must watch this video.

Difference between Inductor and Capacitor, capacitor and inductor difference

In this article we will know about the difference between inductor and capacitor. We know about the Capacitor and inductor main difference.

difference between inductor and capacitor,main difference between capacitor and inductor


Difference between Inductor and Capacitor

                   Inductor

               Capacitor

1. Inductor stores energy in form of magnetic field .
Capacitor stores energy in form of electric field which is main difference between inductor and capacitor.
2.  Inductor is a coil part which stores electrical energy in form of magnetic field.
Capacitor is a device which stores electrical energy in form of electric field.
3. Inductor is a simply coil which stores energy in magnetic field.
Capacitor is made of two conductor which is separated by dielectric.
4. When an inductor is connected to an electric circuit, a current flows through the coils in the conductor
When a capacitor is connected to an electric circuit it start to  store electrical energy.
5. Inductor stores energy is
E = ½ C,
C is capacitance, V is  voltage
Capacitor stores energy is
E = ½ L
L is inductor , I is current of coil
The inductor is an electrical component used to oppose changes in current in the electrical and electronic circuits
The capacitor is an electrical component used to oppose change in current in the electrical and electronics.
7. these are passive element
These are also passive element
8. the inductor storing magnetic flux.
The capacitor is storing charge. it is main difference between inductor and capacitor
9. A component that follows that I = Cx dV/dt.
A component that follows that V = Lx dI/dt.
10. A capacitor will hold charge and discharge current at a set rate.
In case of inductor will induct (create) electricity through magnetic fields caused by running current through a cable with a conductive coil wrapped around it.

Hence these are basic difference between inductor and capacitor. These are some difference between capacitor and inductor.


difference between inductor and capacitor,main difference between capacitor and inductor

For knowing more about the difference between inductor and capacitor you must watch this video.

Synchronous condenser Working and application

In this article we will know about synchronous condenser. We know about the synchronous condenser working and application.

Synchronous condenser working 

Synchronous motors load the power line with a leading power factor. This is often useful in cancelling out the more commonly encountered lagging power factor caused by induction motors and other inductive loads. Originally, large industrial synchronous motors came into wide use because of this ability to correct the lagging power factor of induction motors.
synchronous condenser working and application , application of synchronous condenser

This leading power factor can be exaggerated by removing the mechanical load and over exciting the field of the synchronous motor. Such a device is known as a synchronous condenser. Furthermore, the leading power factor can be adjusted by varying the field excitation. This makes it possible to nearly cancel an arbitrary lagging power factor to unity by paralleling the lagging load with a synchronous motor. A synchronous condenser is operated in a borderline condition between a motor and a generator with no mechanical load to fulfill this function. It can compensate either a leading or lagging power factor, by absorbing or supplying reactive power to the line. This enhance power line voltage regulation .since a synchronous condenser does not supply a torque, the output shaft may be distend with and the unit easily enclosed in a gas tight shell. The synchronous condenser may then be filled with hydrogen to aid cooling and reduce wind age losses. Since a synchronous condenser does not supply torque, the output shaft may be dispensed with the unit easily enclosed in a gas tight shell. The synchronous condenser may then be filled with hydrogen to aid cooling and reduce wind age losses. Since the density of hydrogen is 7% of that of air, the wind age loss for hydrogen filled unit is 7% of that encountered in air. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity of hydrogen is ten times that of air. This, heat removal is ten times more efficient. As a result a hydrogen filled synchronous condenser can be driven Harper than an air cooled unit, or it may be physically smaller for given capacity. There is no explosion hazard as long as the hydrogen concentration is maintained above 70% , typically above 91% . the efficiency of long power transmission lines may be increased by placing synchronous condenser along the line to compensate lagging currents caused by line inductance. More real power may be transmitted through a fixed size line if the power factor is brought closer to unity by synchronous condensers absorbing reactive power. The ability of synchronous condensers to absorbs or produce reactive power on a transient basis stables the power grid against short circuit and other transient fault conditions. Transient sags and dips of milliseconds duration are stabilized. This supplements longer response times of quick acting voltage regulation and excitation
of generating equipment. The synchronous condenser aids voltage regulation by drawing leading current when the line voltage sags, which increases generator excitation there by resorting line voltage. a capacitor bank does not have this ability.
synchronous condenser working and application , application of synchronous condenser
The capacity of a synchronous condenser can be increased by replacing the copper wound iron field rotor with iron less motor of high temperature superconducting wire, which must be cooled to the liquid nitrogen boiling point of 77 degree kelvin (-196 degree Celsius). The superconducting wire carries 160 times the current of comparable copper wire, while producing a flux density of 3 tussles or higher. An iron core would saturate at 2 tussles in the rotor air gap.  

Synchronous Condenser Application 

  1. ·         Power factor improvement
  2. ·         Use for leading power factor
  3. ·         Use for lagging power factor
  4. ·         Use for unity power factor
  5. ·         For synchronous speed
  6. ·         Less than synchronous speed
  7. ·         More than synchronous speed

Hence these are synchronous condenser and their working , application if you will find any incorrect above article you must comment below in comment box.

Types of single phase induction motor

In this article we will know about the types of single phase induction motor. We will know about the universal induction motor.

Types of single phase induction motor

Single phase induction motor construction is similar to poly phase induction motor except that
types of single phase induction motor, single phase induction motor types and application
1. Its stator is provided with a single phase winding
2. A centrifugal switch is used to cut out a winding for starting purpose.
It has distributed stator winding and squirrel cage rotor.
When fed from a single phase supply its stator winding produce a flux which is only alternating.
Types of single phase induction motor

1. Split phase induction motor

These stator of split phase induction motor is provided with an auxiliary winding S in adding to the main or moving winding M. the starting winding is at 90 degree from main winding M and operate only during the brief period when motor starts up. The S winding has high resistance and M winding has low resistance. So the current flowing through winding has reasonable phase difference. ( 25 to 30 degree).it is main types of single phase induction motor.

2. Capacitor start induction motor

In this motor winding has as many turns as M winding and a capacitor C is connected in series with the starting winding. The value of capacitor is so chosen that current in stator winding leads current in main winding by about 80 degree. These types of single phase induction motor are mainly used in domestic application.
types of single phase induction motor, single phase induction motor types and application
These are of following types:
1. Single voltage externally reversible type
2. Single voltage nonreversible type
3. Single voltage reversible with thermostat type
4. Two voltage nonreversible type
5. Two voltage reversible type
6. Single voltage instantly reversible type
7. Single voltage three lead reversible type
8. Two speed type single phase induction motor

3. Capacitor starts and run induction motor

This motor is similar to capacitor start motor except that the starting winding and capacitors are connected in the circuit all times. They are of two types:
·         Single value capacitor runs motor:
These motor start and run with one value of capacitance in the circuit.
·         Two value capacitor run motor:
This motor start with high value of capacitance but run with a low value of capacitance are known as two value motor.

4. Shaded pole motor

types of single phase induction motor, single phase induction motor types and application

These motor has salient poles on the stator excited by single phase supply and a squirrel cage rotor. A portion of each pole is surrounded by a short circuited turn of copper strip called shading coil.

Advantage

  • ·         Simple in construction
  • ·         Reliable and cheap

Disadvantage of shaded pole induction motor


  • ·         Low starting torque
  • ·         Very little overload capacity
  • Low efficiency
  • ·         Uses: small toys, hair dryers, ventilators.

Universal induction motor

This motor operated either a direct or single phase A.C supply at approx... Same speed and output. It has starting torque and variable speed characteristics. It runs at high speed on no load.

They are of two types:
  • ·         Concentrated pole, non-compensated type
  • ·         Distributed field compensated type

Application

  • ·         Vacuum cleaner
  • ·         Drink and food mixer
  • ·         Drills
  • ·         Domestic sewing machine

Method of speed control of universal motor

  • ·         Resistance method
  • ·         Tapping field method
  • ·         Centrifugal mechanism

Unexcited single phase synchronous motor:

These motor operate from a single phase AC supply and runs at constant speed. These motor are also self-starting and no dc excision is necessary for their rotors. They are of two types
  • ·         Reluctance type
  • ·         Hysteresis motor
Hence these are main types of single phase induction motor if you will find any incorrect above you must comment below in comment box.


For knowing more about the types of single phase induction motor.

Types Of Stepper Motor,Application of stepper motor

In this article we will know about the types of stepper motor and also know about the application of stepper motor and their advantage.

Stepper Motor

A stepper motor is a brush less dc motor whose motor rotates in discrete angular increments when its stater winding are energized in a programmed manner. In other words, a stepper motor is a digital actuator whose input is in the form of programmed energization of the stater winding and whose output is in the form of discrete angular rotation. There are a number of different type of motors available and each has its own advantages and disadvantage.
Stepper motor may be divided into the following groups as far as their construction is concerned.

Types Of Stepper Motor

1. Variable reluctance type stepper motor
2. Permanent magnet type stepper motor
3. permanent magnet hybrid type stepper motor

1. Variable reluctance (VR) stepper motor

In this types of stepper motor there is no permanent magnet either on the stater or on the rotor. The stater and rotor are of salient pole type and mode of soft iron stamping.

Types of stepper motor, application of stepper motor , advantage of stepper motor
The stater has a number of wound poles but the rotor has no winding and is cylindrical. The number of poles on the stater is an even multiple of the number of phases for which the stater winding are wound. The number of phases on the stater must be at least three for bidirectional control of the stepper motor.

Application of (VR) stepper motor

Variable reluctance stepper motors are quite inexpensive and suitable for light duties such as those in computer and industrial instrument systems.

2. Permanent magnet (Bipolar) stepper motor

A two-phase bipolar stepper motor has two coils A and B which are wound around the upper and lower halves of stater. the stater surrounds a rotor that contains specifically aligned permanent magnets. The no. of steps per revolution is determined by the no. of pole pairs on the rotor and stater.

Types of stepper motor, application of stepper motor , advantage of stepper motor

The maximum torque with which the excited motor can be loaded without causing a continuous rotation is termed the stepper motor holding torque.

Application PM types of stepper motor

This motor is used as a paper feed motor of a printer or head drive motor of a floppy disk drive.

3. Hybrid types of stepper motor

The hybrid types of stepper motor uses the principle of permanent magnet and variable reluctance stepper motors. In the hybrid motors,the rotor flux is produced by the permanent magnet and is directed by the rotor teeth to the appropriate parts of the air gap. The permanent magnet is placed in the middle of the rotor. It is magnetized in the axial direction. Each pole of the magnet is surrounded with soft toothed lamination.

Types of stepper motor, application of stepper motor , advantage of stepper motor

Advantage of Hybrid stepper motor

The main advantages are hybrid types of stepper motor
1. very small step angles up to 1.8 degree
2. Higher torque per unit volume which is more than in case of variable reluctance motor.
3. Due to permanent magnet, the motor has some definite torque which is absent is( VR) motor.

Hence these are types of stepper motor if you will find any incorrect in above article you must comment below in comment box.


If you want to know more about the types of stepper motor you can also watch  this video.

Principle Of Energy Conservation

In this article we will learn about the principle of energy conversion and also studied about the cost reducing technique of energy.

Principle Of Energy Conservation

Two principles of energy conservation planning are maximum energy efficiency and maximum cost effective-ess in energy use.

Maximum Energy Efficiency

A device system or process is working at maximum energy efficiency when maximum work is done for a given magnitude of energy input. Only a part of the energy input is converted into useful work. The remainder is lost is energy conversion and transfer process and energy discharge.
Work = Energy input – input – energy loss is conversion transfer – energy discharge.
Energy input can be in the form of fossil fuels or latent heat in vapor and gaseous streams or electrical energy. It is heat in vapor and gaseous streams or electrical energy. It is necessary to measure input to determine efficiency.
Work is done by a force causing a motion. Its magnitude is equal to the product of force and displacement e.g., in a turbine or motor the work is measured by the force and number of rotations of the turbine.
principle of energy conversion , energy cost reducing techniqe
Energy loss is conversion and transfer is a necessary part of energy utilization. No process is 100% efficient. The energy losses can be electrical, mechanical, heat, chemical etc. this energy loss is finally dissipated to the surroundings in the form of heat .this heat is transferred to the surrounding by conduction, convection and radiation.
It is evident that system efficiency would improve if energy loss in conversion and transfer and energy discharge is minimized. All energy conversion techniques aim at reducing these losses.

Maximum cost effectiveness in energy use

Implementation of energy conservation entails additional investment. This investment increases as more and more energy conservation measures are adopted. Because of implementation of these measures the fuel costs decrease as extent of conservation in increased. The total cost per unit output is the per unit output and fuel costs per unit output as shown. Evidently maximum cost effectiveness in energy use is obtained when total costs are the least. Around point M (provided energy prices are constant). For better understand about principle of energy conversion we need to also know about the energy cost reduction which is given below.

Energy cost reduction

Off-peak energy utilization

A solution to improving plant capacity factor is to encourage, through lower rates, the use of off-peak energy.
The benefits derived from off-peak energy sales are:
1. Improved capacity factors and hence lower capacity cost and better utilization of investment.
2. Reduced need for peaking units resulting in lower plant capacity and lower production and maintenance costs of fossil peaking units.

Co-generation

Co-generation means sequential conversion of energy contained in fuel into two or more usable forms. There can be two-types of co-generation system.
a. implant power generation system
b. Reject heat utilization system

Co-generation technologies

The different co-generation system is
a. steam turbine system
b. Gas turbine system
c. combined cycles Co-generation system
d. diesel engine system

Energy Conversion

Energy conservation means using energy more efficiency and reducing wastage of energy. Energy has an important role in our day to day life. Energy conservation requires new investments in more efficient equipment to replace old inefficient ones. By energy conservation we can get more job opportunities, lower cost, cheaper and better products.

Hence it is the principle of energy conversion if you will find any incorrect above please comment below in comment box.



Types Of Hydro Turbines, hydro turbines type and working


In this article we will learn about the main types of hydro turbines. We will discuss about mainly three types of turbines which description is given below.

Types of hydro turbines

There are basically three types of hydro turbines which are as follows

1. Peloton turbine

Peloton turbine works under large head and low quantity of water. The potential energy of water in the pen stock is converted into kinetic energy in a jet of water issuing from a nozzle. The pressure inside is atmospheric pressure. The water jet impinges on buckets fixed on the periphery of rotor and causes the motion of the rotor. After performing work. Water discharges into the tail race.
Each bucket is divided into two hemispherical cups with a ridge in the center. The ridge divides the jet into two symmetrical parts. The axial thrust produced in the two parts of the buckets cancel out each other. The rate of water flow can be controlled by the movement of spear.
types of hydro turbines, working of peloton turbine, hydro turbine types
Most of the peloton turbines have one jet through machines with two or four jets are also used. The rotor or runner is made of cast steel. Bucket is made of cast iron, bronze or stainless steel. The bucket is bolted on to the runner but integral casting of buckets with runner is also possible. Peloton turbines have usually horizontal alignment. These are special types of hydro turbines.


2. Francis turbine

A reaction turbine develops power partly due to the velocity of water and partly due to the difference in pressure acting on the front and back of the runner buckets. A Francis turbine is a reaction turbine suitable for medium head and medium flows. They are built in large sizes and are generally of vertical type to effect economy in space. The alternator is mounted above the turbine and is thus free from flooding.
types of hydro turbines, working of peloton turbine, hydro turbine types

A modern francs turbine is an inward mixed flow reaction turbine. The water, under pressure, enters the runner from guide vanes radially and discharges out of the runner axially. The motion of water is controlled by movable inlet wicket gates, fixed around  the runner, through which the water passes on its way from the spiral casing to the runner, since the pressure at inlet is more than that at out let, the water flows in a closed circuit and the runner is always full of water. After doing work, water is discharged to the tail race through a closed tube known as draft tube which has a gradually enlarging section. The free end of the draft tub is submerged deep in tail race water. The draft tube enables the machine to be placed above the tail race without loss of head between the runner and the tail race. As in all reactions turbines, cavitation is a serious problem in a Francis turbine.it is also special types of turbines .
for knowing more about Francis turbine  you must watch this video.



3..  Kaplan propeller turbine

propeller turbine is reaction turbine suitable for low head and large quantity of water. It is suitable for heads beldo 30m. a Kaplan turbine is a propeller turbine with adjustable blades being that a Kaplan turbine operates at high efficiency even under part load conditions. Their specific speeds vary from 300 to 1000 or even higher.
All parts of Kaplan turbine such as spiral casing, guide mechanism and draft tube except runner are similar to those of a Francis turbine. A Kaplan runner has only three to six blades as compared to 16-24 for a Francis runner. The smaller number of blades causes a reduction in contact surface and hence in frictional resistance. Further.in Kaplan turbine eater strikes the blades axially.. It is high speed types of hydro turbines.

The speed of Kaplan turbines is more than that of Francis turbines and lies in the range of 400-1500 rpm, the high speed resulting in lower cost of runner and alternator and cheaper power house structure. A Kaplan turbine has a vertical configuration. A Kaplan runner is also capable of reverse operation as a pump and is ideally suitable for pumped storage scheme. The cavitation problem in Kaplan turbines is more serious than in Francis turbines. It is special types of hydro turbine which speed is higher than other types of hydro turbines



Hence it is the main types of turbines if you will find any incorrect in above article you must comment below in comment box.

Here also a video of kaplan turbine working and application.