Working of Conservator and Breather in transformer

In this article we will learn about working of conservator and breather in transformer. we will know that conservator tank working in transformer and air breather in transformer.

Transformer
Transformer

Working of Conservator and Breather in transformer

Working of  Breather in Transformer

A breather mounted on the transformer tank contains calcium chloride or silica gel, which has a tendency to extract the moisture from the air. In case of transformers, while these are in service, the changes in the oil volume are quite normal. The displacement of air due to these changes of oil volume takes place through the breather, which extracts the moisture in the air would have entered the transformer oil, the presence of which, is quite detrimental to the oil.

Breather in Transformer
Breather in Transformer

Transformer oil has a considerable thermal expansion. It is obvious that under increasing load the temperature rise and consequently the oil expands. Similarly, the oil contracts under decreasing load. Small transformers are sometimes not provided with conservator tank. Therefore, the oil level has to be kept some distance below the top cover to provide space for oil expansion under temperature rise. When the oil expands, the air is expelled out and air termed breathing. Thus, the oil is in contract with air. Exposure to air speeds up the ageing of the oil due to increased sludge and acid formation through moisture absorption and oxidation. It is basic working of conservator tank in transformer.

Working of Conservator in Transformer

It is small metal drum kept on the top cover or supported on a sidewall. When conservator is fitted, the main tank is completely filled with oil and conservator is only half filled. A pipe connects the conservator and main tank. The conservator now takes up the expansion and contraction of oil under variation of load. The oil of the main tank now not is not exposed to air, therefore, remains free from moisture. The area of the oil in conservator coming in contact with air is small; hence, sludge formation is considerably reduced. Further, whatever sludge is formed remains only in the conservator. Thus, ageing of the main tank oil is effectively retarded.

Conservator Tank
Conservator Tank

The outside air coming in contact with the conservator oil is made moisture free by letting it pass through a device called breather. The breather incorporates a dehydrating agent say silica gel, which absorbs oxygen and moisture out of the air and an oil seal to remove mechanical impurities from the air. Thus, sludge formation is further reduced even in the conservator.this is the working of air breather in transformer. 

Hence these are working of conservator and breather in transformer. we have knwon about working of conservator tank and air breather. If you will find any incorrect in above article you must comment below in comment box.