Basic Electrical Terms

Here we read about some basic electrical terms and definition which are use in our daily routine.I think it will help for your better understanding these general terms.In this article we will know about the basic electrical terms.

Basic Electrical terms

Basic electrical terms

1. Voltage

Work done in carrying a unit positive charge from infinity to that point is called as a voltage at that point.

Mathematically V = W / Q


               V is voltage at a point in volt

               Q is charge in coulomb

               W is the work done in joules

Units of measurement: Volts or Joules/Coulomb

2. Current

Rate of flow of electrons is termed as a current.

Mathematically I = Q / t


I is the current flowing in Amps

               Q is the charge in coulomb, t is the time, Units of measurement: Amps or Coulomb / second

Difference between ac and dc current

A.C. v/s D.C.

Alternating Current              Direct Current
Easy to generate as no Commutator required Commutator is required to make it


Easy to step up and step down using Transformer Difficult to step up or down as transformer cannot be used.
A.C. machines are cheaper and more reliable then D.C. Machines DC Machines are costlier and less reliable compared to AC Machines.
Normally 3 wires for transmission and 4 wires for distribution required. Only one or two conductors are required. In case of one wire, earth is used for return path.
Poor voltage regulation Better voltage regulation
High line charging current. No charging current hence no power loss
Significant corona effect Corona effect is less
Significant skin effect No skin effect
Suitable medium and short distance transmission & distribution. Suitable for long distance bulk power transmission. Popularly known as HVDC transmission


3. Time Period

The time taken by alternating quantity to complete one cycle is called

its Time Period T.

Units of measurement: MS (units of time)

4. Frequency

The number of cycles per second is called the frequency of the alternating quantity. Its unit is Hertz (Hz).

In India and U.K. supply frequency is 50 Hz, where as in Japan and Saudi Arabia it is 60 Hz.

Units of measurement: Hz or Cycles/Second

Hence these are some Basic electrical term which is use in electrical circuit better understand or to know  about electrical you must need to know about these basic electrical terms. if  you will find any incorrect in above article you comment below in comment box.










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