Hydel power plant
According water storage1. Run-off river plant without poundage
2. Run of river plant with poundage
3. Reservoir plants
According to Head they are classified in three parts1. Low head plant
2. medium head plant
3. High head plant
1. Low head plant
In such type of plant no storage tank is required. In such plant Francis, propeller the water head available less than 30m. The production of electricity will be less by using this plant.
In this plant mainly water is through main reservoir to for bay and then to the pen stock
2. Medium head plant
The fore bay acts as surge tank for these plants
Medium head plant use Francis type turbine
3. High head plantThis plant works above 500m and used pelton wheel turbines are commonly used. In this plant water is carried out from the main reservoir by a tunnel up to surge tank and then from then from the surge tank to the power house in pen stock.
According to load1. Base load plants
2. Peak load plants
1. Base load power plantThese plants are depending on the nature of load if demand is more , this plant are used regularly . and load reactor of this plants are high.
2. Peak load plantthese plant are mainly used during the peak load . Run of river plants with poundage can be used as peak load plants.
Pumped Storage plantsthese plant are used when quantity of water available for generation is in suffice . If it is possible to pond at head water and tail water location after passing threw the turbine is stored in the tail race pond from it may be pumped back to the head water pond.
Component of Hydel power plant
1. Fore bayIt is enlarged body of water provided in front of pen-stock . it is provided in case of run of river plant and storage plant. main function of fore bay is to store water and supplied it dueling generation of electrical power.
3. Pen stockin hydel power plant open or closed conduced are used to carry the water to the turbines . it is made of reinforced steal. concrete pen-stock are suitable for low heads less ha 30m . and steel pen stock are designed for any head. thickness of pen stock increases with head or water presser.
4. Surge tankAs the load on the turbine deceases or during load tank provides space for holding water when the governor opens the turbine gate suddenly to admit more water, there is a tendency to cause a vacuum in the pen stock.
5. TurbinesTurbines are use to convert the energy of flowing water into mechanical energy .
Water turbine is a rotary ending that takes energy from moving water .
Types of turbine1. Impulse turbine
2. Reaction turbine
6. Draft tubeIt reduced high velocity of water discharge by the turbine . draft tube permit turbine to be install at higher level than tail race level which help maintenance and repair turbines.
7. Tail raceTail race is designed such a rays heat water hammer is minimize when water leave the draft tube .
8. Power houseGenerator
which convert mechanical energy into electrical energy
Step up transformer
High voltage switch
So finaly these component needed in hydel power plant