Construction of Transformer

In this article we are discuss about construction of transformer.

Transformer is static device which consist of following parts.

1. Laminated steal core 
2. Inductive winding
3. Steal tank (tank)
4. Insulating media 
5. Insulating oil
6. Cooling tubes
7. Conservator tank
8. Silica gel breather
9. Bushing

Construction of Transformer – Image Source

Various parts of construction of transformer

1. Laminated steal core(Iron core)

These laminated iron cores are used in all types of transformer. It provides path for flux from primary to secondary winding. This is made from high ratio of high silicon due which permeability increase and hysteresis losses decrease.  Laminated core also reduces eddy current losses. Lamination is done by oxide layer or varnish, which separates each coil. Lamination thickness varies from 0.5 mm to 0.35 mm and frequency varies from 50 Hz to 25 Hz.

2. Inductive winding

Transformer has two inductive winding; first one is primary winding and second is secondary winding. These inductive wingdings are available at opposite sides of core. The upper half is primary winding and lower half is secondary winding. Due to this arrangement leakage flux is decreased and induced EMF will increase. Primary and secondary winding are electrically separated but magnetically linked by iron core.

3. Steal tank (tank).

It is an outer box of transformer which provides safety to transformer core and inductive winding. This is made by welding of iron plates. It is used only for safety of cores and windings.

4. Insulating media

It is used to insulate transformer winding. Press board, varnished, insulating paper, lathered paper, etc. can be used as insulation media.

5. Insulating oil

Insulating oil or transformer oil is filled up in transformer tank. This oil is made from hydrocarbons because its dielectric strength is required very high. Hence these are highly inflammable. Some good insulating oils are alkalis, sapphire, etc. The oil must be free from moisture. It is also used for cooling purpose.

6. Cooling tubes.

In large size transformer cooling tubes and radiators are used on transformer tank. Insulting oil flows in these tubes which become cool from atmospheric air and this cooled oil goes in transformer which maintains the temperature. In high rating transformer, fans are also used for cooling purpose.

7. Conservator tank

It is used with steal tank to show level of insulating oil. According to its indication we can change the amount of insulation oil in steal tank.

8. Silica gel breather

In large size transformer a silica gel breather is used. It absorbs moisture from insulating oil and provides safety from corrosion and oxidation.

9. Bushing

Bushing is used to provide insulation between transformer winding and transformer tank. In three face transformers six bushings are used, three for input and three for output. 
So  these are varous part of construction of transformer

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